The Conviction Statistics: Adults, provides annual data on the socio-demographic characteristics of adult convicted persons (18 and over) by final judgement, as well as additional information on crimes and penalties imposed. In addition, more detailed information on sexual offences is provided.
This is a statistic whose source of information is the Central Register of Convicted Persons and the Central Register of Sex Offenders, belonging to the Ministry of Justice, and the information refers to the sentencing notes in final judgement, recorded in both registers throughout the reference year.
Main socio-demographic characteristics investigated about the convicted person: sex, age and nationality of the offender.
The statistics cover all the sentencing notes in final judgement entered in both registers during the reference year.
Adults convicted by final judgement.
The population under study in the statistics is the group of persons aged 18 and over convicted by final judgement and registered in the Central Register of Convicted Persons and in the Central Register of Sex Offenders during the reference period.
From a geographical point of view, the statistics cover the entire national territory.
National, Autonomous Community and Provincial data are provided, referring to the location of the judicial body that issues the sentence.
There are results available on the INE website since 1998 and on paper since the middle of last century.
The year 2007 is considered the base year of the statistics, given that this year was the one in which a methodological change took place, and therefore, a break in the series.
Until 2007, the information was based on the use of questionnaires filled out by the judicial bodies with criminal jurisdiction for each sentence handed down (whether final or not). As of 2007, the Central Register of Convicted Persons of the Ministry of Justice has been statistically exploited. As a result, the series is broken, since it goes from investigating those convicted in sentences issued by the judicial bodies, which are mostly not final, to studying those convicted by final judgement and therefore recorded in the Register. Since 2017, more detailed information on sexual offences has been provided by also exploiting the Central Register of Sex Offenders.
Number of convicted persons, crimes, and penalties.
The statistics are annual. The data refer to sentencing notes in final judgement entered in the Central Register of Convicted Persons and in the Central Register of Sex Offenders, during the reference calendar year.
Data referring to the period: Annual A: 2017
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Conviction Statistics: Adults, is prepared on the basis of the Collaboration Agreement signed between the INE and the Ministry of Justice on 3 July 2007, modified by the one of 21 November 2017, according to which the Ministry of Justice makes available to the INE the Judicial Registers under its ownership for the statistical exploitation of the information contained therein.
Once the statistical exploitation has been carried out, there are no information exchanges with other institutions.
By virtue of the collaboration agreement signed between the INE and the Ministry of Justice in July 2007, modified by that of 21 November 2017, the Ministry of Justice sends the microdata file to the INE without containing direct identification data of the persons registered in both registers.
The results of the Conviction Statistics: Adults are disseminated on an annual basis.
All relevant documents related to the Conviction Statistics: Adults (press release, detailed results and methodology) are published on the INE website:
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The results are available on the INE website
The publication is structured in 3 blocks: national results, results by Autonomous Communities and Cities, results by provinces. Each block offers results on adult convicted persons, crimes and penalties. In addition, there is an attached module for convicted sex offenders with the same table structure.
There are no microdata files available to users.
There is the possibility of requesting customised information from the INE User Service Area. For more information consult the following link: http://www.ine.es/ss/Satellite?c=Page&p=1254735550786&pagename=ProductosYServicios%2FPYSLayout&rendermode=previewnoinsitem&cid=1254735550786&L=1
The methodology is available on the INE website:
This standardised methodological report is also a source of information on various methodological aspects of the statistics.
Metadata completeness rate AC3= 100%
Sections 10.6 to 17 of this standardised methodological report contain the various quality aspects associated with this statistic.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
During the annual processing of the statistics and in order to guarantee their reliability, we detect and analyse possible systemic or random errors that may affect the quality of the information (invalid values, inconsistencies between variables, imputations of "non recorded" values) in the main variables (date of birth, date of commission of the crime, nationality, etc.).
The legal basis on which the Central Register of Convicted Persons and the Central Register of Sex Offenders are constituted, as well as the obligation to communicate to them the sentencing notes in final judgement, contribute to guarantee the completeness, coverage and quality of its content. The methodological change carried out in 2007 consisting in the statistical use of the Register has allowed a significant improvement in the quality and completeness of this statistic.
As of 2007, the level of coverage has improved considerably (more details are given in sections 14.1 and 14.3) and results on crimes and penalties have been incorporated.
Until the reference year 2011, provisional results were published and subsequently final results. Improving quality has made it possible to do without provisional results, directly disseminate final data and significantly improve the indicator on the timeliness of statistics. The collaboration of the Ministry of Justice has been very important in achieving this objective.
The main users of this statistic are:
- Ministries and other public bodies (Ministry of Justice, General Council of the Judiciary...)
- Researchers and universities (departments of demography, law, sociology, statistics, etc.).
- Territorial administrations (Autonomous Communities, City Councils, etc.)
- Companies and non-profit institutions (especially those working in the social field).
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
Although there is no community regulation, the Conviction Statistics: Adults provides the information requested in the National Statistical Plan.
Therefore, the data completeness rate R1= 100%
Until 31 December 2006, the collection of information was carried out on a quarterly basis by means of a paper bulletin filled out by the judicial bodies (Courts of First Instance and Investigation, Courts of Investigation, Criminal Courts, Courts of Violence against Women, Provincial Courts) for each sentence passed. This type of collection entailed a high lack of response, both partial and total, negatively affecting the accuracy of the information.
As of 2007, we have been using statistics from the Central Register of Convicted Persons; therefore, the statistics are comprehensive and there are no sampling errors. With respect to non-sampling errors, the necessary studies and controls are carried out to evaluate them and limit their importance.
This concept is not applicable as it is a comprehensive investigation.
Sampling errors A1= Not applicable.
During the processing of the information, non-sampling errors are detected and limited as far as possible (no response, completion errors, etc.). However, the obligation to communicate to the Registry by the judicial bodies the information relating to the sentencing notes in final judgement, as well as the measures adopted for the control, organisation and management of the Registry itself, introduces an additional guarantee that reinforces the authenticity and integrity of the data contained therein. In any case, and in order to reduce the possible lack of response to a minimum, the file is requested from the Ministry of Justice some time after the end of the reference period, so that the absence of information due to the lack of communication to the Registry within the established period is practically null.
Over-coverage rate A2= Not applicable
Proportion of common units A3= 100%
Non-response rate per unit A4= Not applicable
Non-response rate per item A5= 0%
Imputation rate A7= 0.78% (nationality of the convicted person)
The results of the statistics are disseminated 9 months after the end of the reference period of the information.
Time lag first results TP1= Not applicable
Time lag final results TP2= 9m
The dissemination of the results is carried out in accordance with the structural statistics availability calendar that the INE prepares and publishes each year.
Punctuality - delivery and publication TP3= The calendar is met
The availability of a methodology, a register source of information and a common processing in all the geographical scope, guarantees the comparability of the results between the different Autonomous Communities.
Comparability with the rest of the countries of the European Union, in the absence of a common statistical regulation or standard, depends as much on their respective legal frameworks as on the methodology of the research carried out in each country.
Until 31 December 2006, the collection of information was carried out quarterly by means of a paper bulletin filled out by the judicial bodies (Courts of First Instance and Investigation, Courts of Investigation, Courts of Criminal Law, Courts of Violence against Women, Provincial Courts) for each sentence handed down, most of which were not final.
As of reference year 2007, based on the Collaboration Agreement signed between the INE and the Ministry of Justice in July 2007, modified by that of 21 November 2017, the primary source of the data was changed for the Central Register of Convicted Persons. This new source of information, which is the basis for the exploitation of the statistics, contains the sentencing notes and suspended sentence notes corresponding to the final sentences registered in it.
This change entailed a break in the series, so that the results of the Statistics are comparable from the reference year 2007, being, therefore, the number of comparable elements of the time series of the Conviction Statistics since its last break equal to 11.
Length of comparable time series CC2= 11
The Conviction Statistics: Adults obtain data from the Central Register of Convicted Persons and the Central Register of Sex Offenders, which contain information on final judgements handed down. Although with a differentiated approach, there are other sources of information such as, for example, the Secretariat of State for Security. The results from this source are considered generally consistent with those obtained by the INE, although they differ as a consequence of their distinct nature and the methodology applied in each case. The Secretariat of State for Security provides information on the complaint phase, while the Conviction Statistics: Adults of the INE investigate the completed trial phase.
The internal consistency in the Conviction Statistics: Adults is the consequence of the application of the same methodological criteria and of a detailed analysis of the possible inconsistencies existing between the different variables.
The estimated budget appropriation necessary to finance this statistic foreseen in the 2018 Annual Programme is 18.83 thousand euros.
The burden on respondents is zero, as this statistic is obtained from information provided by an administrative register.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
As from the 2012 reference year, it is not intended to publish provisional results or revise published data. The data disseminated from this statistic are final.
Taking into account the dissemination policy of this statistic, the revision of its data does not proceed in practice, since there are no preliminary or provisional results.
Average revision rate A6-MAR= Not applicable
Average revision rate A6-MAR= Not applicable
The source data of the Conviction Statistics: Adults are administrative data. They are obtained from the Central Register of Convicted Persons and the Central Register of Sex Offenders, belonging to the Ministry of Justice.
These registers record final decisions by the commission of a crime or misdemeanor imposing penalties or protective measures, issued by the Courts or Tribunals of the criminal jurisdictional order. The recorded information comes from the notes on sentences, suspension of sentences, remission of sentence and/or conditional sentence, protection measures and in absentia.
The statistical concepts coincide with the legal concepts.
Data is obtained on an annual basis. The file is sent by the Ministry of Justice to the INE before the end of the first half of the calendar year.
The information is obtained from the Central Register of Convicted Persons and the Central Register of Sex Offenders, belonging to the Ministry of Justice, which contains information on sentencing notes, suspension of sentence, remission and/or conditional sentence notes, protection measures and in absentia notes.
The Ministry of Justice annually extracts from both registers the information requested by the INE for the elaboration of the Statistics according to the design of the register provided. This information corresponds to that contained in the sentencing notes and suspended sentence notes of the registered final judgements. The file provided to the INE contains dissociated individual information and does not contain identification data of persons.
The Ministry of Justice sends the INE the file extracted from both registers with the following information:
Identifier of the convicted person; country of birth; province of birth; country of nationality; sex; date of birth; code of the crime committed; number of crimes committed; code of the penalty; sentence length; amount of the fine; indicator of whether the sentence is for each or all crimes committed; code of statement of recidivism and/or habitual offender; province of the sentencing body; degree of commission of the crime; degree of involvement in the crime; date of sentence; date of commission of the crimes.
Once the information is received, a coverage control of the information is carried out as well as an analysis of its content in order to detect possible inconsistencies. Likewise, a control of valid values of the different variables under study is carried out.
Once the validity of the file received has been checked, in a second phase certain variables are recoded and transformed and secondary auxiliary variables are created that allow the calculation of crimes and penalties and the detection of duplicates.
In a later phase, inconsistencies between variables are automatically detected and corrected. Once the cleaning is finished, we obtain derived variables and the results tables.
The last phase before the dissemination of results consists of analysing the aggregate information and correcting potential errors or inconsistencies not detected in the previous phases.
The information that is processed comes from administrative records and it is not necessary to make any type of adjustment.