The main objective of the Private Education Financing and Expenditure Statistics is to study the structural and economic characteristics of schools that carry out their activity in the regulated private education sector, both state-funded (a school unit financed using public money) and not state-funded.
To do this, information is collected on the characteristics of schools and for each education level: the composition of the student body and teaching staff, as well as the cost structure, expenditure and revenue.
In addition, it allows information to be obtained on household expenditure on private schools through income from students for teaching, extraordinary, supplementary activities and supplementary services.
The information obtained complies with a set of basic requirements, such as being comparable on an international scale, covering the information required by various users, both nationally (Ministry of Education,
Culture and Sports, School Councils, School Federations, Parent Associations...) as well as internationally through the UOE Questionnaire subject to Regulation (UNESCO, OECD and Eurostat), and being a useful instrument for National Accounts.
To determine the different educational levels, the recommendations outlined by ISCED 2011 (International Standard Classification of Education, revised in 2011) are followed.
Geographic classification: at the level of the list of Autonomous Communities and Cities according to the INE standard.
Classification by ownership of the school: the concept of ownership refers to the economic dependence of schools in their operations in relation to the extent of their agreement with the Administration. They are classified as:
State-funded classrooms in state-funded schools.
Classrooms that are not state-funded in state-funded schools.
Classrooms that are not state-funded in schools that are not state-funded.
In addition, state-funded classrooms are those classrooms subsidised by the Public Administration for over 50% of their running costs. Of special relevance in 1st cycle of Early Childhood Ed. and Vocational Training
The target population of study are all private schools (with or without any state-funded classrooms) that provide both university-level and below university-level regulated education.
“Regulated” is understood to mean education that is authorised by Public Educational Administrations.
Private schools are considered to be those who have an owner that is a private corporation or natural person, with owner being understood as the entity registered as such in the Schools Registers of the different Education Statistics Institutes or Regional Ministries Economic of Economy or the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, regardless of whether it is largely financed by public funds
Territorial coverage: includes all private schools located in the national territory including the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
The units of analysis comprise all private regulated teaching centres whose main activity is to provide one or more educational levels and that function as such during the reference period (academic year 2014-2015).
This involves the set of regulated private teaching centres located in the national territory whose main activity is to provide one or more educational levels within the scope of this Survey and that function as such during the reference period (academic year 2014-2015).
This covers all regulated private teaching centres located in the national territory.
This statistic is carried out every five years. Detailed results are available on the INE website for the academic years 1994-95, 1999-2000, 2004-2005, 2009-2010 and 2014-2015.
The time series published on the INE website starts with the academic year 1994-1995.
thousands of Euros for absolute values
Euros for average values per student or user
The reference period of the Survey is the academic year, and it aims to obtain all data from the 2014-2015 academic year.
In those cases in which schools' accounts have been adjusted to the calendar year, the economic data refer to 2015.
Data referring to the period: academic year 2014-2015
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
This survey was carried out in collaboration with the Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT) and the Basque Statistics Office (EUSTAT) for the scope of the schools in their respective Autonomous Communities
A collaboration agreement has been signed with the Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT) and the Basque Statistics Office (EUSTAT). In this collaboration agreement, the INE undertook to draft the methodological specifications included
Survey Project and in the corresponding technical documents, as well as to design the Questionnaire, to design the register of the final file and the error detection rules for the validation of the final file. Without prejudice to a fluid relationship between the different agencies necessary for the unification of criteria and the resolution of situations specific to each Autonomous Community.
The collaboration agreement holds its Statistics Institute responsible for: directory collection as well as the editing, sending, recording and filtering/imputation of questionnaires.
Definitive data are released every five years.
A press release is disseminated when definitive data are published. This can be found at https://www.ine.es/prensa/np727.pdf
All relevant documents related to statistics (methodology, questionnaires...), as well as complete tabulation can be found at https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176760&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735573113
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to tables in INEbase within the Society / Education and Culture section at www.ine.es
Microdata files with standard anonymisation are not provided for this statistical operation. However, users can access these via tailored requests.
It is possible to request tailored information through the INE Information area. It must be noted that there are limitations on confidentiality or accuracy when processing the aforementioned requests (link: https://www.ine.es/prodyser/informacion ).
As it is five yearly, annual updates are carried out of the main figures in order to meet international information requests, in particular the UOE Questionnaire subject to Regulation, as well as national agencies (State School Councils, Madrid School Council...).
A detailed description is available through the following link (publications, press releases, methodology and questionnaires):
Sections 10.6 to 17 of this document are the user-oriented quality report for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
When the INE receives provisional files (fortnightly) with information completed in the questionnaires, it carries out quality controls on the internal coherence of the data referring to each school for them to be validated or returned if any data requires checking.
Later, a series of tables are designed with the aim of verifying the quality of aggregated data and of the relations between the different variables, as well as to analyse comparability with other statistical sources.
Filtering and digital tabulation allow for strict validation rules to be established throughout the statistical process.
Having a web questionnaire for this statistic allows for a reduction in the time for the completion and correction of certain errors through the included controls as well as producing a positive effect with regards to the respondent's perception of the ease of filling out the survey.
For this edition, sections of the questionnaire have been redesigned with the aim of making its completion easier.
The users of this statistic include:
- International agencies. Base for the completion of the UOE Questionnaire (UNESCO, OECD, Eurostat) subject to Regulation in the FINANCE 2 sections referring to the expenditure of private schools.
- Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and Autonomous Communities' Statistics Institutes
- Other public agencies (State School Councils, Madrid School Council...) for the preparation of their annual Reports on the status of the education system.
- Non-profit institutions and companies.
Researchers and universities.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The Statistic is not subjected to the Regulation of the European Statistical System as such, although its data serve as a base for the completion of the sections on private expenditure (FINANCE2) of the UOE questionnaire (UNESCO, OECD and Eurostat) that are subject to the Regulation.
All the information required is collected in the National Statistics Plan in such a way that it allows for compliance with the aims of the survey and attendance to requests received.
The rate of available obligatory statistical results (Indicator R1) is R1=100%
The collection and coverage control procedures as well as other processes such as the filtering of errors and inconsistencies or the imputation of the (partial or total) non-response allows a higher level of statistical reliability to be obtained.
The collection of information has been carried out exhaustively, apart from in schools that only provide 1st cycle Early Childhood Education where a sampling of 51.6% of the schools in this stratum was carried out.
The collection of information has been carried out exhaustively except for in centres that only provide 1st cycle Early Childhood Education where a sampling of 51.6% of the schools in this stratum was carried out.
Sampling errors for Early Childhood Education for the variable income is A1=0,8.
- Coverage controls are established through detailed analysis of the directory.
-For the imputation of partial non-response: The information available in the directory (geographic information, levels of education provided, number of students, number of teachers...) has been used as an information base
-For the imputation of the total non-response: A post-stratification technique has been used in order to correct possible biases in survey results, resulting from a lack of response from some of the schools studied.
The aforementioned procedure consists of assigning weights to the respondent schools so that the distribution of these weights is equal to the total distribution of the schools in the framework. It is expected that within the same stratum the schools will behave similarly with respect to the target variables.
NON-UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. 8,774 questionnaires were collected from the 9,334 schools in the final survey directory, which represents a response rate (indicator A4) of A4=6.0%.
The post-stratification variables used to obtain the weighting of respondent non-university educational centres were:
Autonomous Community in which the education is provided
Whether or not the centre has an agreement
Type of education provided
Size of the centre
UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. The response rate (indicator A4) was A4=4.0% (166 out of 173 centres completed questionnaire). For post-stratification, the following variables were considered:
Autonomous Community in which the education is provided
Type of centre
Size of centre
The time from the reference date of the data (calendar year 2015) until publication (indicator TP2) is TP2=23 months. Information was collected throughout 2016.
Data dissemination is carried out in accordance with the structural statistics availability calendar that INE publishes and prepares every year.
The processing of the statistic, in all its stages, follows the same criteria for the whole national territory. In this way, results are completely comparable for any geographical disaggregation (even at a provincial level).
It is also comparable at the international level, as it collects all the necessary items for the completion of the International UOE Questionnaire (UNESCO, OECD, Eurostat) subject to Regulation.
The results are comparable over time.
The number of comparable units over time (indicator CC) is CC2=4.
It complements the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport's (MECD) framework by including information on private sector expenditure that is not present in its statistics. The MECD only collects information on public schools that provide regulated education through information from their administrative registers.
The classifications, concepts and definitions are comparable between both operations.
Internal coherence between the variables is checked at every stage of the statistical process. Internal validation rules exist both in the completion of the questionnaire as well as in the processes following filtration.
The estimated budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistic, as provided for in the 2015-2017 annual programmes is 504.78 thousand Euros.
In order to reduce the burden for the respondent:
-It was decided to offer completion of the statistic via an online questionnaire.
- A more specific, smaller questionnaire was designed for universities.
- A sampling (of 51.6%) was carried out of schools that only provide early childhood education and since they share fairly homogeneous characteristics...
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
There is no data review policy.
Results previews are not published. Data that are published are definitive and, therefore, not subject to review.
The statistic data is obtained through the questionnaires completed via the web by private regulated educational centres. Two types of questionnaires have been designed; one for non-university centres and another, more specific and smaller, for universities.
As this is directed at all private schools located in the national territory, this is a census (not sample) statistical operation. Except for schools that only provide 1st cycle early childhood education in which the sampling of 51.6% was carried out...
The directories also include data on the centre's identification, information on the centre's characteristics, levels of education provided, number of pupils per level... with the additional objective of supporting the tasks of filtering and imputation of the non-response.
The directories of private regulated schools are used as a framework of the statistic, provided to the INE by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.
This statistic is carried out every five years.
Data refer to the 2014/2015 academic year or the calendar year 2015. Information is collected in the second quarter of the year following the reference year.
To obtain the information, each education centre is contacted through a letter of introduction in which a web link is provided to the application where the questionnaire can be completed, as well as the access codes to this application.
Information is collected through the web questionnaire (although the questionnaire is also available in paper format).
It includes a series of inconsistency controls that allow for interactive simultaneous recording and filtering of the questionnaire.
First stage: The web questionnaire includes a series of alerts and errors on valid and inconsistent values that allow errors to be corrected whilst the questionnaire is being completed.
Second stage: Analysis of provisional biweekly files during the information collection stage. A series of quality controls is then carried out, both of coverage of respondent units (duplicates, non-response...) and of internal coherence of microdata (based on a series of regulations established in the statistic's technical documents). This enables the questionnaire to be validated (in the first instance) or returned if data is considered to require checking. This process enables data to be corrected soon after being completed and helps prevent systematic errors.
Furthermore, a series of aggregated results tables is programmed that show the relationship between variables and possible imbalances not considered in the filtering of individual questionnaires. The internal coherence of the data is analysed through variation coefficients... by education level, Autonomous Communities and compared to external sources.
Third stage: Subsequently, once the statistic's joint file is obtained and the non-response has been imputed, joint treatment of the information is carried out and it is analysed through a harmonised set of analysis and tables.
During the micro-filtration process, invalid values, inconsistency between variables and a partial non-response are detected and imputed. Depending on the characteristics of each type of error, different automatic imputation procedures are then used. In addition, errors detected in the prior analysis of provisional files are corrected.
Once micro-filtration is complete, a series of analysis is carried out to determine and analyse the estimates of the different aggregates. Before the final tabulation, macro-filtration techniques are used to remove inconsistencies and errors that were not detected at previous stages.
Given that the period to which this statistic's data refer is the whole academic year, no seasonal adjustment is required.