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The overall objective of the Harmonized Business Demography is to provide aggregated information regarding the population of enterprises located in the national territory, considering the aspects linked to business dynamism and applying a methodology as agreed within the scope of the European Union. This methodology provides the guidelines that enable identifying populations and generating indicators regarding the stock, births, deaths and survivals of enterprises, through a harmonised statistical operation on the Business Registers (Central Business Register or CBR in our case) managed in Statistics Offices.
The prior categorisation of the set of units entering, staying and leaving the system constitutes the basic initial subpopulations. In addition, it is necessary to consider the activity status of the units in historical versions of the CBR, in order to delimit survivals following a number of years.
The time reference considered for the demographic information corresponds to the calendar year, a requirement that is compatible with the update period of the CBR.
The delimitation of populations of interest is carried out by means of an ordered set of procedures varying in nature, designed in accordance with the harmonized methodology principles. Basically, the work is geared to identify the following aggregates:
For each demographic category identified, listed below are the classification variables and the modalities adopted for each one of them.
1. LEGAL FORM. It is obtained from the first character of the tax identifier (N.I.F.) corresponding to the legal unit used as legal support in the case of simple enterprises, or to the legal unit most representative in terms of employment in the case of complex enterprises. Not applicable to surviving enterprises. The following modalities have been considered:
2. SIZE CLASS. The following categories have been considered:
3. MAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY CODE. The level of detail corresponding to NACE Rev. 2 Divisions (2 digits).
4. AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY. The national data on the stock, enterprise births and deaths have been broken down by Autonomous Communities and Cities, according to the region where the enterprises headquarters are located. Autonomous Communities and Cities are named according to the standards of the INE.
This statistical operation covers all economic activities of NACE Rev. 2, except for Agriculture, forestry and fishing (Section A), Public administration and defence; compulsory social security (Section O), Activities of households as employers of domestic staff (Section T) and Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies (Section U). Similarly, activities of holding companies (NACE Rev. 2 class 6420) and units non-market oriented, have been excluded.
Business Demography data are obtained for the statistical unit enterprise.
The definition of enterprise applied is according to that reflected in Council Regulation 696/93. For the aggregate of surviving enterprises it has been possible to apply that definition only to the cohort of enterprises born in 2018 because the cohorts of enterprises born before 2018 were built on the base of a former definition of enterprise prevailing the legal aspects.
According to Regulation 696/93, an enterprise is defined as the smallest combination of legal units that is an organisational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making, especially for the allocation of its current resources.
Set of enterprises located in the national territory, both employers and non-employers, with economic activities unther sectoral coverage. They are enterprises having turnover or employment some time during the period of reference, and therefore, appear in the statistical business register (CBR in our case).
The entire national territory.
National data on stock of enterprises, enterprise births and enterprise deaths are broken down by Autonomous Communities and Cities.
From 2008 to 2019.
The first period with data available corresponds to the calendar year 2008.
Number of enterprises.
The calendar year.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2019
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
In the National Statistical Plan 2021-2024, and in the Annual Programme of 2021, Harmonised Business Demography appears with number 8282.
Currently, stadistical data on Business Demography have been included in the Annex IX of Regulation (EC) No. 295/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2008 concerning structural business statistics, which requires of all Members States to provide information on Business Demography with annual periodicity. In the following URL that regulation is available in English:
Harmonised Business Demography is compiled with information coming from the statistical business register, which is managed by the Unit of CBR, that is where the producers of this statistic are integrated.
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
In this statistical operation no datum is considered as confidential.
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
Along with the detailed data, a Press Note, a Graphic Annex, a Standardized Methodological Report and a document on General Methodology are released.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The information contained in INEbase for Harmonized Business Demography refered to 2019, is as follows:
Series1: Stock, births and deaths of enterprises. National and Autonomous Communities and Cities results
1.1 Stock of enterprises by Autonomous Communities and Cities, main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and size class.
1.2 Stock of enterprises by Autonomous Communities and Cities, main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and legal form.
1.3 Enterprise births by Autonomous Communities and Cities, main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and size class.
1.4 Enterprise births by Autonomous Communities and Cities, main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and legal form.
1.5 Provisional enterprise deaths by Autonomous Communities and Cities, main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and size class.
1.6 Provisional enterprise deaths by Autonomous Communities and Cities, main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and legal form.
Series 2: Surviving enterprises. National results
2.1 Surviving enterprises born in 2014 by main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and year.
2.2 Surviving enterprises born in 2015 by main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and year.
2.3 Surviving enterprises born in 2016 by main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and year.
2.4 Surviving enterprises born in 2017 by main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and year.
2.5 Surviving enterprises born in 2018 by main activity (NACE Rev. 2 divisions) and year.
All the information regarding Harmonised Business Demography is available via INEbase, section Economy/Enterprises and in the following link:
Microdata dissemination is not applicable for this statistical operation.
Through the INE User Information Area, users may request specific tailored information which is carry out after a mandatory feasibility study that guarantees confidentiality and data quality. This service may be accessed through the following link: https://www.ine.es/prodyser/informacion.
In INEbase are available a Standardized Methodological Report and a document on General Methodology. Both may be viewed at the following link:
Quality of these and other data on Business Demography referred to 2019, will be analysed by Eurostat regarding Regulation (EU) No. 275/2010 of the Commission of 30 March 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No. 295/2008 of the European Parliament and the Council, as regards the criteria of data quality assesment for business structural statistics.
This standardized methodological report contains all of the elements of what is considered a "User-oriented quality report" for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The quality of this statistical operation previously lays in achieving high quality standards in the statistical Business Register (CBR). The compilation process of this statistical register has established mechanisms for the detection and correction of errors. These controls are carried out from a static perspective (internal consistency of data regarding a specific reference period) as well as from a dynamic perspective (time analysis of the aggregates). The computer tools used, allow detecting all the possible formal quality errors of the information.
Besides, in this statistical operation specific control proceedings are applied, as those intended to detect false births and false deaths of enterprises, that refer to simple redistributions of production factors. In order to improve the quality when delimiting populations of enterprise births and deaths, all enterprises with 100 and more employees are comprehensively monitor and analyzed. The relative weight of this population in the business frame justifies the development of special control operations in order to suitably classify movements associated with these units. Thus, standard procedures are supplemented with validation operations aimed at capturing pertinent information regarding the causes associated with the phenomena of birth and death, which normally requieres querying specialised databases (Mercantile Register and others) or access to websites. Additionally, on the population of births and deaths of simple enterprises with more than 19 and less than 100 employees (and having turnover higher than euros 3,000,000) and of complex enterprises with more than 39 and less than 100 employees (and having turnover higher than euros 6,000,000), a random cleaning is applied based on the results of a survey that CBR Unit set in 2001 in order to measure the proportion of false births and deaths of enterprises.
Harmonized Business Demography presents some strong points worth mentioning. First, it should be noted that this statistical operation involve no burden on the enterprises, since it is the result of an specific operation on the statistical Business Register. Likewise, standard proceedings are faithfully followed. These standards are stipulated in the harmonized methodology established in order to elaborate this statistic, gathered in "Eurostat-OECD Manual on Business Demography Statistics". The application of these harmonized proceedings is what allows to offer comparisons in an international scope with a high level of solvency.
This statistic is used mainly by analysts interested on measuring real processes of creation, survival and destruction of production factors, somewhat that goes beyond the simple count of registrations and cancellations of legal units in the statistical business register, and that, therefore, need a specific treatment.
The application of a specific methodology implemented through a series of computer processes on the last update of the business register, imply that data are generated with some delay in comparison with the reference period.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
This statistical operation provides all information requested by the National Statistical Plan. The level of completeness is of 100%.
Global accuracy is consecuence of the strength of the management and maintenance model of the statistical business register CBR, that is the data source. In particular, it should be mentioned the control processes on the annually entering, staying and leaving units, obtained from the detected movements in the administrative sources that provide information to the CBR. Although the analysis of movements from administrative sources provides an initial preview of units renewal processes, the statistical work to be carried out for obtaining harmonized demographic indicators demands an additional effort, contributing added value to the administrative information.
Not applicable, being data obtained from information recorded in the CBR.
Research is exhaustive, thus no sampling errors can occur.
During the verification control of all births of enterprises with 100 or more employees, 61 cases were analysed, of which 35 (57.4%) were considered false births. In addition, a random cleaning was made of 547 cases (58.5%) on 935 simple or complex enterprise births having between 20 and 99 employees and that complied other requirements.
Similarly, during the verification control of all the deaths of enterprises with 100 or more employees, 91 cases were analysed, of which 50 (54.9%) were considered false deaths. Also a random cleaning was made of 538 cases (58.4%) on 921 simple or complex enterprise deaths having between 20 and 99 employees and that complied other criteria.
Community SBS regulation requieres availability of results in a term of 18 months from the end of the reference period. This target is achieved in every June, but for releasing it in INEbase some specific treatments are needed, as the ones referred to regional breakdown and production of graphs, that lead dissemination to November (t+23 months).
Dissemination of results is carried out in accordance with the availability calendar of structural statistics that INE compiles and publishes each year.
Elements of territorial coverage of CBR allow to guarantee comparability of produced data in its breakdown by Autonomous Communities and Cities. Besides, Regulation (EC) No. 295/2008 (SBS Regulation) is an harmonising element that allows comparability of these data within the European Union.
Data referred to 2018 and 2019 are not fully comparable with those referred to previous years because of the adaption to the concept of enterprise reflected in Council Regulation No 696/1993.
Nevertheless, since the first reference year with data available (2008) up to this last one (2019), the same classification variables (NACE Rev. 2 and the size class categories according to the number of employees and the legal forms foreseen) have always been used. Likewise, it should be pointed out that for the year 2008 no breakdown by Autonomous Communities and Cities was made in data on stock, births and deaths of enterprises.
The highest degree of coherence of these data is related to those named CBR movements disseminated in the statistical operation Statistical use of CBR, where legal units that enter, stay and leave, are annually counted, according to the movements detected in the administrative sources, that provide information. However, Business Demography analysis is not limited to just quantify the flows obtained during the processes of updating the Business Register, since although movements of administrative sources offer a first approach to units' renewal processes, the statistical work to be carried out for obtaining Business Demographic indicators demands an additional effort, contributing added value to the administrative information.
Data are coherent regarding its breakdown by NACE Rev. 2 divisions, size class according to the number of employees, legal form and Autonomous Communities and Cities.
The estimation of the budgetary credit necessary to finance this statistical operation, as foreseen in 2021 Annual Programme, comes to a total of 50.19 thousand euros.
Due to the specific characteristic of this operation, there is no burden for the informants, as it consists in one operation on information just recorded in the CBR.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
There is no data revision, although data relative to enterprise deaths are provisional, since those deaths are considered definitive after two years from the reference period. It is necessary to exclude enterprises that reactivate in the two years following the year when they die. That control on reactivated enterprises may be performed for year t+1 but no for t+2, as that period matches with the natural year of 2021, which have not conclude in the moment of disseminating the data in INEbase and on which obviously no corresponding update of CBR is available. The data appearing in tables are estimated by taking enterprise deaths detected in 2019 and that have not been reactivated in 2020. On that base population, a random exclusion of a small percentage of units is performed, in accordance with the experience of previous years on reactivations in the second year. The results show differences between final and provisional data, which are irrelevant.
No revision is planned, although data on enterprise deaths are not definitive, due to the reasons mentioned in the previous point.
Data source of Harmonized Business Demography referred to year 2019 is the Central Business Register (CBR) updated with date of 1 January 2020, being result of registered flows during 2019.
Due to it is not a survey, no data collection exists on respondent units. The statistical operation consists of a specific use of information just contained in the CBR.
The procedures applied allow to approach the methodological specifications in order to delimit the stock of enterprises, enterprise births, enterprise deaths and surviving enterprises, specially regarding the exclusions in each case.
Correct delimitation of the demographic categories demands the incorporation of, at least, the following procedures:
Errors of false enterprise births and false enterprise deaths may exist, in the sense that they are no real creations or dissolutions of production factors. In order to reduce these errors, all enterprises with 100 and more employees are monitor and analysed exhaustively. The relative weight of this population in the business frame justifies the development of special control operations in order to suitably classify movements associated with these units. The technics of data processing are complemented with verification operations intended to capture relevant information on the cause associated to the events of birth and death, which normally demands to query specialised databases (Mercantile Register or others) or access to websites. Besides, on populations of births and deaths of simple or complex enterprises having between 20 and 99 employees and that complied other criteria, a random cleaning is made, based in the results of a survey that CBR Unit implemented in 2001 in order to quantify the proportion of false births and false deaths of enterprises.
In order to delimit real enteprise births and deaths from entering and leaving legal units in the CBR as well as to treat surviving enterprises, there are applied computer programs designed to fulfil the methodological specifications and the validation controls shown in the previous point.
Aggregates are compiled by automatic procedures with standardised software products and regularly used in INE (SAS, PCAxis, ...).
Due to it is an operation on information just recorded in the CBR, no seasonal or calendar adjustments are made.