A mortality table is composed of a set of series or biometric functions by age, such as the risk of death, survivors and life expectancy, which are calculated with the primary objective of measuring the incidence of mortality in a population regardless of the age structure of that population, thus allowing the evolution, in time and space, of the incidence of this demographic phenomenon to be analysed.
The biometric functions are calculated for the resident population in Spain and in different territorial scopes, from the observed flows of deaths and the corresponding population numbers.
The series of mortality tables are calculated by sex, age and territorial scope.
The official administrative division of Autonomous Communities and Cities and Provinces is used to classify by territorial scope. Lists of autonomous communities and provinces are used according to INE standards.
The calculated mortality tables describe the behaviour regarding this demographic phenomenon of the population of each sex resident in Spain, its Autonomous Communities and cities as well as its provinces.
The purpose of the mortality tables is to measure the incidence of this demographic phenomenon in the population for which they are prepared.
Therefore, the statistical unit is the population resident in a given geographical area (Spain, Autonomous Community,...).
The statistical information of the mortality tables is generated for the population, total and by sex, resident in Spain, in its Autonomous communities and cities and in its provinces.
Mortality tables are prepared for the population resident in Spain, its Autonomous communities and cities and its provinces.
Annual data has been provided since 1975 with the same methodology throughout the series. With the exception that for mortality tables prior to 1991, the closing age is advanced 10 years in all cases.
The calculation methodology used is the same for the annual series of results currently published. Except that for mortality tables prior to 1991, the closing age is advanced 10 years in all cases.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2019
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The preparation and dissemination of life tables is not harmonised at European or international level, in general. In particular, it is not governed by any European regulation. The European Commission, through its Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) prepares and publishes its own mortality tables for all Member States. The methodology and results of these are the exclusive responsibility of EUROSTAT, not generally coinciding with those prepared and published by each country.
The results are disseminated annually in December of each year in such a way that in December of year t + 1, the definitive results corresponding to year t are published.
All information related to this operation can be accessed through:
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to tables and time series in INEbase within the section "Demography and population" on www.ine.es:
In 2019 the number of queries to the results tables was AC1= 49,657.
This is a synthesis statistic prepared from aggregated results from several statistical sources. Therefore, microdata of the statistic is not available.
This operation allows us to meet requests from users for tailored information that is not included in the results tables of the same, following a feasibility study by the INE. The request is made through the Information area at the following link:
The operation"s methodology can be consulted at:
Sections 10.6 to 17.2 of this document are considered the user-oriented quality report for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The quality is adequate, since the necessary starting data is available and the basic methodology used in the calculation is that adopted by all the countries that prepare mortality tables, the specific features of the latter being adjusted to the generally accepted demographic assumptions for the preparation of mortality tables.
Thus, the functions of the mortality tables are calculated from the deaths and population figures observed over a period of time, which is usually one year.
The former, coming from the Deaths Statistic of the Natural Population Movement , are considered of good quality and with the necessary disaggregation (by provinces, sex and age groups).
As for population figures, these are estimates which have been calculated from the last Census of 2011, to which the most recent available figures on the flows of births, deaths and migrations have been added, so it can be said that they constitute the best possible approximation to the real population. The differences with reality cannot be verified until they are contrasted with those deduced from a new population census, which could lead to their revision. This revision, in general, does not have an important influence on the results of the tables.
Considering the above, the series of the resulting mortality tables are compared with those corresponding to previous periods, in order to detect possible inconsistencies resulting from errors in the calculations.
The complete consistency of the results provided on population stocks and demographic events has been checked at all levels of disaggregation.
The Mortality Tables are a statistical synthesis operation using data from other operations. Therefore, it does not burden the user and allows a significant volume of demographic information to be obtained at a low cost.
The mortality tables" primary objective is the analysis of this demographic phenomenon, which aside from own use by the INE (with the analyses and projections it carries out), external users may include the following:
- International agencies (Eurostat, United Nations...).
- Ministries and other public agencies.
- Territorial administrations (autonomous communities, city councils...).
- Companies and non-profit institutions.
- Researchers and universities.
Each of these users has different needs depending on the destination and utility of the information they need.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
This operation meets the objectives set forth in the current National Statistics Plan.
Therefore, the rate of mandatory results available is 100% (R1=100).
The functions of the mortality tables are calculated from the death and population figures observed over a period of time, which is usually one year.
This operation is prepared from the information provided by the statistics on demographic events occurring at any given time, so the accuracy of its results depends on the sources of information used.
There are no sampling errors, as no sampling procedures are used in this operation.
The baseline information used is composed of death and population figures observed over a certain period of time.
The former, from the Death Statistics of the Natural Population Movement , are considered to be of good quality and therefore do not constitute a source of error.
As for population figures, given that they are estimates calculated with the most recent information available on births, deaths and migrations flows, it can be presumed that they constitute the best approximation to the population for which mortality tables are prepared. The differences with reality cannot be known until they are contrasted with those deduced from a subsequent population census, which could lead to their revision. This revision, in general, does not have an important influence on the results of the tables.
As far as the methodology used is concerned, it is the one adopted internationally and is sufficiently contrasted. The analysis of the results obtained, in comparison with those corresponding to previous dates, is carried out in order to be able to detect errors in their application.
Therefore, the errors which can affect this statistical operation are considered to be minimal.
More information at:
The preparation and consequent dissemination of the mortality tables is carried out each time new definitive data on deaths from the Natural Population Movement (NPM) are available. Thus, both the NPM and the life tables are published 12 months after the end of the reference period (TP2=12 months).
The dissemination of this operation takes place on the date established in the INE"s structural statistics calendar.
The results of the national, autonomous and provincial mortality tables are comparable.
Furthermore, the basic methodology applied makes the results comparable with those of other countries that also prepare mortality tables, provided that the specific characteristics of the procedure applied to calculate them are taken into account.
The available results, which have been published since 1975, are comparable in time, since they are obtained from the same calculation methodology. Therefore, the number of comparable elements of the time series of all the mortality tables' biometric functions from their inception in 1975 until the last publication of definitive data in 2018 covers 44 annual periods (CC2=44).
In March 2016 the data series of the 1975-1990 mortality tables were published for the first time.
The series of mortality tables calculated are those obtained by the different national and international statistical agencies and offices which undertake this task. Therefore, it can be said that they are comparable.
However, when making comparisons it is necessary to take into account the specific characteristics applied in obtaining the series.
Therefore, taking into account the specific procedures used, it can be said that the results of this operation are comparable with those obtained by Eurostat, by the Human Mortality Data Base, by the statistics offices of other countries and by the Autonomous Communities....In any case, the knowledge of such methodologies allows the comparison of basic results such as life expectancy at birth, at retirement age,...
The results of the mortality ables are internally coherent, since they are calculated from the same death and population figures, disaggregated by provinces and Autonomous Communities and cities, using a common methodology.
This is a synthesis statistic, drawn from other sources. It does not require the collaboration of respondent units and neither does it generate data collection costs.
The estimate of the budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistical operation foreseen in the 2019 Annual Programme of the 2017-2020 National Statistics Plan is of 12.26 thousand euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The INE has a Policy which regulates the basic aspects of the revision of statistical data, guaranteeing the transparency of the processes and the quality of the products. This policy is described in the document approved by the Board of Directors at the meeting held on March 13, 2015. The document is available in the "Quality and best practices" section of the INE website.
This general policy sets out the criteria to be followed for different types of revisions: routine - in cases of statistics which are regularly revised by their nature - ; major revisions, due to methodological changes or changes in baseline sources of statistics; and extraordinary revisions (for example, those due to an error in published statistics).
In the case of the Mortality Tables, the definitive data is prepared from the definitive data, both from the Natural Population Movement Statistics and from the definitive Population Figures, 12 months after the end of the reference period.
In December 2015, an extraordinary revision of the biometric functions of the Mortality Tables took place, in order to incorporate the intercensal estimates of the 1971-2001 Population which were recalculated between 2014 and 2015, with the objective of having a continuous series of population figures that begins on January 1, 1971 and links with the last published period of the Population Figures statistic. Given that the series of Intercensal Population estimates published up to 2015 had been prepared according to diverse processes of smoothing by ages, they did not constitute a homogeneous series. On this same date, methodological changes were also applied to the closing age.
In March 2016, the data series of the 1975-1990 mortality tables were published for the first time.
In September 2017, small errors were corrected in the programming of the 1975-1990 and 1991-2015 mortality tables which affect: Average of years lived in the last year of life at the table"s closing age, Stationary population at all ages, Time to live at all ages and Life expectancy at all ages. In this last one, differences occur in the second and/or third decimal place. In addition, due to the corrections of persons aged 100 years and older in the Population Figures from 01/01/2016, the specific mortality rates for 2015 have been updated, exclusively affecting the age at which the table closes.
The calculation methodology applied is the same for the entire series from 1975 to the present, with the exception of the open age group established for the closing of the table which are:
For the period 1975-1990 :
- 90 years nationwide
- 85 years at autonomous and provincial level
- and 80 years at the level of the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
- 100 years nationwide
- 95 years at autonomous and provincial level
- and 90 years at the level of the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
This is a synthesis statistical operation , prepared from the definitive annual deaths classified by province, sex and age, from the Death Statistics of the Natural Population Movement and from the equally classified populations from the Population Figures or Intercensal Population Estimates in the case of years prior to 2012.
The availability of definitive information for the processing of this operation"s data is annual, for which reason the mortality tables are calculated with the same periodicity.
Mortality tables constitute a synthesis operation.
The baseline data for the calculation of the mortality table's functions comprise the death figures by sex and age, the Death Statistics of the Natural Population Movement and the population figures equally classified, corresponding to Population Figures or Intercensal Population Estimates.
Since this is a synthesis operation, the validation of the baseline data is described in the corresponding statistical operations.
Therefore, in the case of deaths, it is the Natural Population Movement and as regards the population figures used, these are postcensal or intercensal population estimates; therefore, they are contrasted with those resulting from each census, being definitive when it comes to population estimates between two successive censuses.
Additionally, the results are analysed, comparing them with those obtained in previous periods in order to detect inconsistencies or errors in the application of the calculation method.
No treatment is applied to the baseline data prior to their use in the calculation of the mortality table series.
These series are obtained according to the general model of demographic tables, with the procedure for calculating some parameters being discretionary.
Thus, mortality rates, by sex and age, are calculated with deaths in a calendar year, unlike the widespread practice of calculating them by age and generation, or from the average of deaths observed over two or four years. This discretion does not imply a departure from general practice, but must be taken into account when using the results obtained.
No adjustments are made to the baseline data, nor to the results obtained in this statistical operation.