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Quality of Life Indicators 2023
Measuring the progress and well-being of individuals involves broadening the framework of economic development indicators traditionally used as measures of growth and well-being (GDP, other aggregated National Accounts indicators).
The publication aims to offer a panoramic view (multidimensional) of the quality of life in Spain, by choosing a set of indicators that allows for territorial comparisons and between population groups.
The selected indicators describe the quality of life organised in nine dimensions: I.Material living conditions, II. Work, III. Health, IV. Education, V. Leisure and social relations, VI. Physical and personal security, VII.Governance and basic rights, VIII. Environment, IX Overall experience of life.
For each indicator, an individualised file is provided consisting of: introduction and definitions, comments, national and international sources and a section that allows for further information in which links of interest to other sources and initiatives developed in different countries are provided.
As it is a summary publication that collects information on the different aspects of quality of life, the classification systems are those corresponding to the numerous surveys and statistics used as sources of information. Among others, the following classifications are used: International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-2011) and its equivalent National Classification of Education (CNED-2014)
Information is provided on the quality of life of people in the nine dimensions considered: Material living conditions, Work, Health, Education, Leisure and social relations, Physical and personal security, Governance and basic rights, Environment, Overall experience of life.
As this is a summary publication that collects information from different statistics and surveys, the statistical unit is the one applicable to each of these surveys and statistics.
As this is a summary publication that collects information from different surveys and statistics, it is not applicable to a single statistical population but rather to those corresponding to the surveys and statistics used as sources of information.
The indicators refer to the entire national territory and are geographically disaggregated by Autonomous Community.
Time series are provided. In the first edition of this publication, information was provided for the period 2004-2013. The 2023 edition of the publication provides information for the period 2004-2022.
When considering as a reference period time series, we could consider as a base period the lower limit of this edition 2004-2022, that is to say the year 2004. In the case of monetary data collected from the Living Conditions Survey, we consider the year 2008 as the base period.
The unit of measurement is considered to be individuals. The information is provided in percentages of population, generally population of 16 years old and over. For some specific indicators, the lower age limit may be 18 years.
Time series, on the base of annual data from the different surveys that serve as a source of information (Living Conditions Survey, Economically Active Population Survey, etc.).
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2023
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
The National Statistics Institute will be responsible for the information being used in such a way that the protection of individual data is totally guaranteed, and all personnel participating in the elaboration of the Survey are subject to the obligation to preserve statistical secrecy, as well as to the other restrictions deriving from the application of Law 12/1989, of 9 May, of the Public Statistical Function and of Organic Law 15/1999, of 13 December, on the Protection of Personal Data.
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
It is an annual web publication.
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
The results of the electronic publication are disseminated through the INE website and is organised into nine chapters, corresponding to each of the nine dimensions analysed. Within each one of them, the most relevant indicators are included that enable us to analyse the quality of life of individuals in each dimension. The publication is annual based on the date included in the INE publications calendar.
The publication is organised in individual files associated with each indicator, in which the following information appears: Introduction and definitions of the indicator, Comments on the temporal evolution of the information, Excel tables and associated graphs, Sources of information used both from national and international organisations, as well as Links to other sources and publications that allow for further information.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to the publication on INEbase in the section on living conditions. You can also access it from free publications:
As it is a summary publication that collects many surveys, microdata are not available.
A methodology file is available which includes a Background section with the initiatives carried out at European level: Eurostat, OECD, United Nations. It also includes initiatives carried out in different countries. A Content section is included detailing the areas (thematic, population, geographical and temporal), the classification variables, a list of the indicators included and the sources of information used.
The methodology file is available through the website of the publication: https://www.ine.es/ss/Satellite?param1=PYSDetalleGratuitas&c=INEPublicacion_C&p=1254735110672&pagename=ProductosYServicios%2FPYSLayout&cid=1259937499084&L=1
This standardised methodological report contains all the elements of what is considered to be a "user-oriented quality report" for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The selection of quality of life indicators is carried out by the unit responsible for the publication, following Eurostat's initial scheme and adding other indicators in some dimensions.
For many indicators, the information that is published is collected directly from the original statistical sources without any further elaboration, which guarantees the quality of the information. In some other cases, it corresponds to a customised request to the responsible unit, thus guaranteeing the quality of the information.
The information is always reviewed and validated by the responsible INE units for the different sources of statistical information used.
The publication is updated annually according to the INE publications calendar. It is intended to reduce as far as possible the period between the date of publication of the Quality of Life Indicators on the INE website and the date of the annual publication of the different sources of information (Living Conditions Survey, Economically Active Population Survey) in order to provide the user with the most recent information.
A time evolution of the information is included, which allows the analysis of the positive or negative evolution of the different indicators that measure the quality of life of the people.
The selected indicators follow the initial scheme published on Eurostat's Quality of Life Indicators website, based on the report “Measuring progress, well-being and sustainable development” approved by the European Statistical System Committee. Eurostat included for the first time on its website a series of Quality of Life Indicators in 2013. This initial series has been revised and developed by a Working Group of Experts on Quality of Life created within Eurostat, which finished its work in August 2016. In the publication Quality of Life Indicators 2023 the updates provided by this Eurostat Working Group have been incorporated into the published indicators.
The INE in this publication follows the general guidelines proposed by Eurostat in the development of the Quality of Life Indicators. Other relevant indicators are also included at the national level to complete the analysis of some dimensions.
The base information is collected directly from the information sources, or customised requests are made to the INE units responsible for the different statistics and surveys that serve as information sources, thereby maintaining the quality of the data used.
The publication is annual. The aim is to reduce to the maximum the period of time elapsed since the publication of the source of the information and the dissemination of the publication, in order to provide very updated indicators.
The publication is based on all the initiatives previously carried out by the academic world and by international organisations such as OECD, United Nations, etc. that have marked the guidelines to be followed to measure the well-being of individuals.
For the last two or three decades there have been several initiatives for measuring social and economic progress, such as the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations. But the work that has attracted the most attention and has had the greatest impact not only in the academic world, but also in official statistics has been the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Report (SSF) published in September 2009 on behalf of the French government.
This Report (SSF) proposes a multidimensional approach to measuring the progress of societies and contains a series of concrete recommendations addressed above all at official statistics in order to achieve this objective.
In November 2011 the European Statistical System Committee (ESSC) approved a report entitled “Measuring progress, well-being and sustainable development” which includes 50 concrete actions that should be undertaken by the European Statistical System (ESS) to implement the recommendations of the SSF report. In May 2013 Eurostat published a first set of quality of life indicators based on the ESSC report of November 2011. This first set of quality of life indicators has been reviewed and developed within Eurostat, resulting in a revised 2016 version of the list of indicators.
The set of quality of life indicators will be subject to continuous revision in order to offer the user the information that best captures and reflects the objective and subjective well-being of individuals. In its publication, the INE follows the guidelines established by Eurostat and the OECD and incorporates all the innovations that these bodies provide.
This publication is aimed at all users of social statistics within the section on Income and living conditions. As it is a new publication, in the next few years it will incorporate and cover dimensions of quality of life not currently developed, either because they do not yet have statistical information, or because they have not yet been developed methodologically. This will cover the needs of users not currently satisfied due to the lack of statistical information.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
There is no information on user satisfaction for this particular summary publication, however in the different satisfaction surveys that the INE produces, information is provided on satisfaction in relation to different groups of surveys.
As it is a summary publication, it includes the dimensions of study that make it possible to analyse people's quality of life. It incorporates all the statistical new developments that may be of interest and provide more information in each dimension, to meet the needs of users.
It is not subject to any regulation or standards with respect to mandatory statistical results. In general, the guidelines of the Eurostat project are followed, but each country is free to publish the list of indicators it considers most appropriate. The proportion of information elaborated in relation to that requested in the National Statistical Plan is 99%. (R1= 99%).
Given the characteristics of this publication, which uses information provided by other statistical operations, the accuracy relies mainly on these operations, and it is possible to assess the accuracy of the different indicators used in this web publication, through the methodological files of the operations that serve as a source of information.
Since it is a summary publication that compiles different surveys, sampling errors can be assessed in the statistics that serve as a source of information.
Due to the characteristics of the statistics, non-sampling errors can be assessed in the statistics that serve as sources of information for the publication.
The publication is updated annually according to the INE publications calendar.
The aim is to reduce to a minimum the time elapsed since the publication of the data that serve as a source of information and its dissemination as an INE online publication. The TP2 period elapsed since the reference period of the information and the date of publication of the final results is 300 days (TP2=300 days).
It is guided by the date included in the INE publications calendar.
Indicators are published nationally and by Autonomous Community. For some indicators, information is provided on the European Union. There are no problems of regional or international comparability, since the data are comparable with the countries of the European Union that follow the guidelines of Eurostat in the preparation of the information sources used.
The 2023 publication includes a temporal evolution (2004-2022) of non-monetary indicators based on the Living Conditions Survey that allows for temporal comparability. The number of comparable elements in the time series of non-monetary data from the Living Conditions Survey is CC2=19 elements.
For monetary data based on the Living Conditions Survey (income, at-risk-of-poverty rate, etc.), two homogeneous but not comparable series have been built: the 2004-2012 series with a CC2=9 comparable elements and the 2008-2022 series with a CC2=15 comparable elements.
For indicators based on the Economically Active Population Survey, a time series is included (2004-2022) with a CC2=19 comparable elements.
Also included are indicators of the weighted average with population of the annual average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 pollutant particles with a time series 2004-2022, with a CC2=19 comparable elements. This information comes from the Ministry for the Ecological Transition and the Demographic Challenge.
The consistency of the information contained in the publication is carried out in relation to the consistency of the information contained in the statistics and surveys, both national and European, which serve as the basis for the different indicators.
Therefore, the information has been validated by the INE units that produce these statistical sources, and in the case of official European statistical sources, data are published based on the same methodology used by these sources.
The information contained in the published indicators has complete internal consistency, since the basic information from national and European statistics and surveys is validated by the producing units in the case of national sources and in the case of European sources the information published is based on common methodologies.
The estimated budget appropriation necessary to finance this publication foreseen in the 2023 Annual Programme is 59.52 thousand euros.
There is no burden on the respondent as the basic information comes from surveys and statistics already published.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The publication includes final data from already published surveys and statistics.
The publication includes final data from already published surveys and statistics.
The indicators included in each dimension are obtained fundamentally from surveys aimed at the population, such as the Living Conditions Survey (LCS) or the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS). In some cases, other statistical sources may be used, such as the National Health Survey (NHS), a statistical operation of the Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare, which it carries out in collaboration with the INE.
The statistics include objective and subjective measures of quality of life. The subjective measures are based on questions answered by individuals about satisfaction in relation to different aspects of their life (Module on well-being 2013 and 2018 – LCS) or about their self-perceived health status (NHS, LCS). The objective measures refer to material conditions, work, education, leisure time, etc.
The publication is updated annually according to the INE publications calendar.
Once the corresponding source of statistical information has been published, we proceed to update the indicators and review the national and European statistical information, as well as the most recent publications on quality of life that can add relevant information to each indicator.
It is a summary publication and the data collection corresponds to that of the different surveys and statistics that serve as sources of information for the indicators.
Once the corresponding statistical source of information has been published, an update of the indicators is carried out. We also proceed to the revision of national and European statistical information, as well as the most recent publications on quality of life indicators that can add information of interest to each indicator.
The validation is carried out by the reporting sources which are official statistics.
The compilation of data is carried out once the different surveys and statistics that serve as sources of information for the indicators have been published.
It is not carried out as it is a compilation and selection of final statistical tables.