The data of the Survey reflect the two sides that are considered in tourism research: for the demand side, information on travellers, overnights and average stay are provided and distributed by country of residence of the travellers and category of the establishment they occupy or by origin Autonomous City or Community for travellers resident in Spain; for the supply side the number of estimated open establishments, estimated bedplaces, ocuppation degrees and information about the sector are provided, by establishment category.
This information is provided monthly, on the following levels: national, Autonomous Community, province, touristic area and tourist spot.
The analysis units are all hotel establishments registered as such in the corresponding register of the Tourist Boards of each Autonomous Community.
Research is carried out on every hotel establishment in the national territory.
The geographical scope includes all the national territory.
The information is presented on different levels of geographical breakdown: national, Autonomous Community, provincial, tourist areas (group of municipalities) and tourist sites (municipalities).
From the year 1964 onwards. Data on paper from 1965 to 1998. From 1999 on, they are available on the website.
The year when Hotel Occupancy Survey was carried out for the first time and, therefore, the base year, is 1999.
Guests, overnight stays, days, people, percentage, establishments, bed-places and bedrooms.
Data referred to the period: Mensual A: 2018 MES: 12
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
These statistics comply with the Regulation (EC) no. 629/2011 of the Council and the European Parliament on 6th July 2011, regarding tourism statistics. The Spanish version of the European Union regulations that affect this operation is available on: https://www.ine.es/normativa/leyes/UE/minine.htm#30235
For establishment categories, those that do not comply with statistical secrecy are aggregated with the lowest or highest categories. Data from areas or touristic spots where less than 12 establishments answered are hiden. Data from nationalities with less than 10 travellers or less than 20 monthly overnights are also hiden.
The results of the survey are disseminated via the INE website, and some results are included in publications such as the Statistical Yearbook, INE Figures, etc. A press release is prepared monthly, which contains the following operations: HOS, HPI and IPHS.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The specific link for the Hotel Occupancy Survey in INEbase is: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177015&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735576863 The indicator used is AC2 (number of accesses to the online database) = 432893.
Microdata sets are not disseminated.
Tailor-made requests are also requested, and sometimes they become continuous or they are extended. The policy for tailor-made requests attention consists on analysing whether the conditions of statistical secrecy and significance are observed. After this analysis a viability report is prepared and sent to the petitioner. The establishments that send the data for the survey via XML receive the date of publication of the press release and also a personalised report (see anonimised example) with information about variables ADR, RevPAR and occupancy degree by room about their establishment and those of their competition. These type of establishments can also receive information about other areas, if they request it.
The methodology contains information on questionnaires, link coefficients, variation coefficients, estimators, XML data collection method, treatment of lack of partial response, definitions, sample. The document can be viewed in the following link: https://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/ocuphotel/notaeoh_en.htm
Fields 10.6 to 17 of this document may be considered the quality report intended for users for this operation.
Following the 692/2011 Regulation of the Council and the European Parliament, the European Commission (Eurostat) assesses the quality of the transferred data and publishes reports on the quality of European statistics. In order to do this, each country provides a quality report within the 9 months after the year-end. The link is as follows: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/cache/metadata/EN/tour_occ_esms_es.htm
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The Hotel Occupancy Survey carries out on a regular basis review activities on the statistical procedure in order to comply with the quality conditions required both at national and international levels. The main activities are the review of collected data such as the survey directory, as well as microfiltering when receiving data and macrofiltering afterwards. Improvement in the data collection systems (XML).
As shown in the next rubrics, where quality indicators are explained in detail, the HOS presents a quite high quality, and the data from the operation can be obtained in a 23-days period of time. The total lack of response usually is aroun 7% for provisional data and 2.5% for final data, and variation coefficients also have levels lower than 0.5 for the main variables. Periodic updates of the directory and improvements in the data collection system are carried out, such as the introduction of the collection via XML files. Finally, the Eurostat Methodology regardin tourism surveys is also followed: Methodological Manual for Tourism Statistics, available in the following link: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/tourism/methodology/manuals-and-guidelines
Users are quite varied: tourism board/consortium, individuals, establishments, consultancy companies, Autonomous Community governments, city councils, universities, associations of accommodations and catering entrepeneurs. Received data are used for analysis, studies, reports and designing of policies. The needs of users that are not satisfied are those that do not comply with the conditions of statistical secrecy and statistical significancy. Among the data from the users, the Profitability Barometer published by Exeltur or the Monitor Report published by CEHAT are worth noting. Both of them collect their data from the INE.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
EOH fulfills all requirements establishd in the international guidelines on Tourism statistics, Regulation 692/2011 from the European Parliament and the Council, from the supply perspective. 100% of the information requested by the Regulation is supplied.
The estimators used are unbiased, and therefore, the bias is null. Variation coefficients are available for the main variables, travellers and overnight stays. With regard to non-sampling errors, we try to minimise both coverage errors and total non-response errors. More information may be viewed in the survey methodology, which is available at the following link: https://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/ocupacam/notaeoac_en.htm
In order to measure the precision of this statistical operation, variable coefficients are available for the traveller and overnight stay variables, broken down between residents in Spain and residents abroad. The values of the variation coefficients may be viewed at the following link: https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/en/index.htm?padre=239
The estimators used are unbiased, and therefore, the bias is null. Among the non-sampling errors, coverage errors are minimised by carrying out periodical crosses between the Autonomous Community directories and the RTAOS directory, for the purpose of finding possible duplicities, establishments that are missing or those that are no longer active. Total non-response is minimised between the provisional data and the final data, due to the re-contact with the units that did not answer, and in addition, an imputation of data is performed for these cases. Among the non-sampling errors, there is information available regarding non-response, with the non-response rate in 2015 being A3 = 7,1574.
23 days elapse from the reference date of the data to the publication of the provisional figures, whereas for the final data, one year and one month elapse for the months of January to May, and the final data for the rest of the months is published in June. That is, in April 2016, the provisional data for March 2016 and the final data for March 2015 are published, and in June 2016, the final data for 2015 that was not disseminated previously is published.
Each publication has been disseminated on the date announced in the publication calendar. The calendar may be viewed at the following link: https://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco41/calen_en.htm
The availability of a methodology, a design and a common process for collection, filtering, publication and elevation for the entire geographic scope, guarantees the comparability of the results among the different Autonomous Communities, provinces, tourist areas and tourist sites. On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to Regulation 692/2011 makes comparability possible with the rest of the European Union countries.
As of 1999, linking coefficients have been used for directory updates or methodological changes on multiple occasions, for the purpose of the data series being comparable over time. For further information regarding the linking coefficients: https://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/ocuptr/coeficientes_enlace_en.htm. In January 2016, the series has 204 elements.
Though the variables gathered in this survey are not collected in any other survey, a coherence is observed between the values obtained and the evolution of the economy.
The data has complete internal coherence, as it is based on the same set of microdata, and is calculated using the same estimation methods for the different breakdowns. The arithmetic and accounting identities are observed in the production of the data sets.
The estimation of the budgetary credit necessary to finance the Tourist Accommodation Occupancy Survey (hotels, holiday dwellings, tourist campsites, rural tourism accommodation and hostels) set out in the 2019 Annual Programme comes to a total of 5,272.30 thousand euros.
There is no information about burden on respondents. There is a means of collection, using XML files, for the purpose of reducing the response burden, as the information is collected directly from the management systems of the establishments, with it not being necessary for respondents to fill out the questionnaire, thus reducing the time that the establishment dedicates to responding to the questionnaire.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The revision policy is as follows: once the results are published in t+23, more questionnaires from the reference month are received, and therefore, the final version of the results presents greater coverage (increasing from a response rate of 93% in the provisional results to a rate of 97.5% in the final results). In June each year, a publication is disseminated, which is more detailed than the monthly publication, of the data from the previous year. This publication is final. Though from January to May, the same day that the provisional results from the reference month are published, the final results from the same month the previous year are also disseminated.
Each month, the provisional data from the previous month, and the final data from the previous month the previous year, are published, up until the month of June, in which all of the final data from the previous year that has not previously been disseminated is published. The quality indicators used are MAR, absolute average revision, and RMAR, relative average revision, which is obtained for the main variables, travellers and overnight stays.
The average annual values in 2017 are:
MAR travellers = 26616, RMAR travellers = 0.0030
MAR overnight stays = 95014, RMAR overnight stays = 0.0050.
The INE compiles a national directory of Hotel establishments establishments, using the registers sent by the Tourism Councils of the Autonomous Communities. This directory contains the following information for each establishment: name, address, category, opening period, number of rooms and capacity.
The sample is stratified to the level of province - category.
The collection methods are: CAWI, post, fax, e-mail, automatic data collection via XML. The information in the questionnaires is collected and filtered in a decentralised fashion, and the XML information is collected in a centralised fashion. The questionnaire includes information on seven consecutive days. which constitute the reference week and 3, 4 and 5 star establishments fill out a questionnaire with monthly data. The XML file collects information regarding all the days of the month. The questionnaire is updated annually, with the new countries in the EU.
The procedure for supervising the data validation consists of applying a series of validations to the questionnaires. In case some inconsistency is detected, the INE contacts the establishment again. When all of the data has been collected, it is revised again in a centralised fashion. In the files received by XML, the validation is performed at the time that the data is sent to the INE; if the data is not verified by the validations, it is not uploaded into the database. Lastly, a macrofiltering is performed.
Firstly, there is a decentralised microfiltering process to detect and filter errors and inconsistencies in the questionnaires. Next, on a central level, the data is linked to the that of the XML files, and the estimators are obtained. Subsequently, a macrofiltering is performed, prior to the tabulation and dissemination of the results.
No adjustments are applied.