Industrial Turnover Indices (ITI) have the objective of measuring the economic activity evolution of companies that are part of the industrial sector in Spain, based on their turnover.
It consists in a survey aimed at industrial establishments, which inform on their turnover. The results of this statistical operation are presented in the form of indices, with the objective of measuring variations, taking 2015 as the base year.
Every month, the indices and their variation rates (monthly, annual and the average for the year so far) are published for:
Similarly, most of the aforementioned information is published adjusted from seasonal and calendar effects.
Economic activity coverage:
The following sections in CNAE-2009 are included:
B: Extractive industries (except division 09 which is not relevant for the Spanish industry)
C: Manufacturing industry
Size class coverage:
They is no threshold for any variable in this statistical operation. In INORI, the cut-off sampling is used being the cut-off variable the turnover and the selected units are those covering at least the 80% of the turnover of the stratum (NUTS2-division/subdivision) estimated by the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector.
European Community Council regulation number 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 on short-term statistics, amended, among others, by European Parliament and Council Regulation number 1158/2005 of 6 July 2005, establishes that the basic statistical unit (or information unit) is the economic activity unit. For this statistical operation, this is defined as the unit that carries out a single economic activity, to four digits of CNAE-2009, included in sections B and C.
In practice, due to the lack of an appropriate framework for these units, the establishment (unit which carries out one or more economic activities in a single physical location) is used as the information unit.
The object population of study of the survey is formed by the economic activity units whose main economic activity is included in sections B (Extractive industries) and C (Manufacturing industry) of CNAE-2009.
The sources used to build the framework are the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector and PRODCOM.
The sampling size is approximately 12.000 units.
The survey covers the entire national territory except Ceuta and Melilla.
ITI started to be calculated for reference month January 2002 in base 2000. In 2009, the data began to be published with base 2005. In 2013 the data was disseminated in base 2010. Since the first publication of the indices corresponding to reference month January 2018, base 2015 is used.
Periodicity is monthly.
Council Regulation No 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 concerning short-term statistics, amended by Regulation No 1158/2005 of 6 July
2005 which concerns short-term statistics, establishes that, every five years, Member States shall rebase the indices using as base
years the years ending with a 0 or a 5 and that all indices must be rebased on the new base year within three years after the end
of each new base year.
For this reason in 2018 the data will be disseminated in base 2015. For this base we have:
Value indices and monthly, annual and year-to-date average rates.
The data provided by the respondents regarding turnover refer to each complete calendar month.
Data referred to the period: Mensual A: 2019 MES: 11
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
ITI are subject to Council Regulation number 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 on short-term statistics, amended, among others, by European Parliament and Council Regulation number 1158/2005 of 6 July 2005, which establish the common production framework for community statistics on the short-term evolution of the economic cycle.
The Spanish version on the European Union regulations which are applicable to this statistical operation may be accessed in the following link:
Information is sent every quarter to the Autonomous Statistics Institutes via collaboration agreements signed with them, in compliance at all times with the requirements established to maintain statistical secrecy.
Industrial Turnover Indices is a statistical operation included in the National Statistical Plan, therefore subject to Law 12/1989, of 9 May on the Public Statistical Function and, consequently, its data is protected by statistical secrecy in all the stages of its compilation.
Industrial Turnover Indices are disseminated monthly.
The information related to this indicator is published on the INE Spain website where, among others, the following publications are available:
Varied information regarding this indicator may be consulted in the following Eurostat website:
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The results of the survey are available from year 2002 up to now.
Results in base 2015 can be found at the following link: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736148782&menu=resultados&idp=1254735576715
In the previous link, in addition to information related to indices, monthly, annual and year to date rates, it can be consulted weights used in base 2015.
Series corresponding to bases 2000, 2005 and 2010 are available on the following link: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736148782&menu=enlaces&idp=1254735576715
In 2018, the INE website was accessed 63,587 times to consult tables containing information regarding the Industrial Turnover Indices statistical operation.
ITI microdata is not accessible to the general public.
A microdata file is not disseminated, but only provided to Regional Statistics Institutes, with which a collaboration agreement has been signed for the sending of this information, by virtue of the Framework Partnership Agreement between the National Statistics Institute of Spain and the Central Statistics Offices of the Autonomous Communities (OCECA).
There is the option of requesting customised information from the INE Customer Service Area. Limitations to confidentiality or precision are borne in mind at the time of processing said requests.
In addition, the companies that are part of the sample and complete the questionnaire online, upon request will be provided with a customised report which includes a comparison of the annual rates of the establishment during the last twelve months as well as that of the sector to which they belong.
The Methodological Handbook of this statistical operation may be viewed at: https://www.ine.es/en/metodologia/t05/t0530053_2015_en.pdf
The metadata completeness rate is AC3=100% and in 2018 the number of metadata consultations on the website is AC2=1060.
Based on Council Regulation number 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 on short-term statistics, amended, among others, by European Parliament and Council Regulation number 1158/2005 of 6 July 2005, the European Commission (Eurostat) evaluates the quality of the transmitted data and every three years provides the Council and European Parliament with reports on the quality of European statistics. To this end, each country provides the information requested by the Commission. Eurostat provides information on the main quantitative indicators, which are calculated based on the data provided by the Member States, available at the following link: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database.
ITI is compiled in accordance with the European Community guidelines, in compliance with the Code of Practice of European statistics adopted by Eurostat.
Fields 10.6 to 17 of this document are the quality report for this operation oriented to users.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The production process of ITI is designed to guarantee the quality of the information used, as well as the results obtained thereof. To this end, different quality controls such as the detection of invalid errors, estimation of non-response, supervision and checking of field work and other permanent controls over the information flow have been carried out on all the phases of the process.
This statistical operation is carried out in compliance with Council Regulation (EC) number 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 on short-term statistics, amended, among others, by European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) number 1158/2005 of 6 July 2005. It follows community guidelines, complying with the European Statistics Code of Practice adopted by Eurostat and taking the necessary measures so that the published indicator meets all the quality requirements.
One of the measures carried out to guarantee the quality of this statistical operation consists in contrasting the results with other statistical sources such as: IPI (Industrial Production Index ), IPRI (Industrial Price Index) and the Sales in Large Companies that are obtained by the State Tax Office of VAT tax returns. For this reason, upon detection of discrepancies with some of the aforementioned sources, the available information is analysed in detail in order to explain their cause.
In addition, the results of the Industrial Turnover Indices (ITI) are contrasted with those of the Industrial New Orders Received Indices (INORI) since, from the timing of the business activity point of view, INORI may be considered an ITI flash estimate. Therefore, there must be certain coherence between both indices.
The main strong points of this statistical operation are: coverage, punctuality and comparability.
As a matter of fact, the following improvementswere applied in base 2010, and they are maintained in base 2015:
- Greater geographical and conceptual breakdown (results broken down by markets and by Autonomous Communities are published for the first time).
- Obtaining series adjusted for seasonal and calendar effects. Only the original series are published since base 2000 and the series adjusted for calendar effects since 2005. Since 2010 the series adjusted for seasonal and calendar effects are also published.
The survey responds to the main users' need for information. Including:
Each one of these users have different needs, according to the purpose and use they will make of the information they require. For this reason, customised information is sometimes provided.
The series adjusted for seasonal and calendar effects were published for the first time in base 2010 so as to meet Eurostat's information requirements among others.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The persons responsible for the survey are in permanent contact with the main users, so as to fulfill any specific need for information.
Similarly, given the possibility of there being requests that are not yet handled due to their complexity, in each base change they are evaluated as well as any suggestions from the main users. Most of these demands are satisfied.
The survey responds to all of the requests for information in the national as well as international regulation.
ITI is ruled by Council Regulation (EC) number 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 on short-terms statistics, amended, among others, by European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) number 1158/2005 of 6 July 2005. The requirements included in both regulations are fulfilled by this indicator.
The R1 indicator is 100%, R1 being the rate of available obligatory statistical results, which is calculated as the quotient between the amount of data provided and the amount of data required by the applicable regulation.
The main source of error is probably non-response. There is no proof that the response rate is distributed in such a way that it generates a bias in the indices or their evolution. On the other hand, measures are carried out so as to improve the continuity in the update of the sample, substituting delistings in a more agile way.
It is not possible to obtain sample errors, since the sample is not probabilistic. The sample is based on the cut-off method, which is considered the most appropriate given the characteristics of the sector.
Non-sampling errors are controlled throughout the entire statistical process.
Coverage: the survey framework contains the establishments whose main economic activity is encompassed in sections B or C of CNAE-2009 and it is updated annually. The frame sources are the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector and PRODCOM, and the units to be included in the ITI framework are those that represent at least the 80% of the turnover in the stratum (NUTS2*economic activity at 4 digits level of CNAE-2009). Due to the way the survey framework is obtained, the overcoverage rate is close to zero.
Total Non-response: The average annual non-response rate in 2017 is of 1%. The measures that have been taken to reduce it are: to facilitate online completion by sending the access codes to the application in advance, to establish the sending of bulk reminder e-mails to respondents who have not answered 7, 12 and 17 days after the reference period and to extend the data collection period (not delaying the dissemination period).
Partial non-response: Due to the way the questionnaire is collected the item non response rate in 2017 was 1%.
Imputation: The monthly variation rates of the collaborating units of each elementary aggregate have been used to imputate the values of those units of the same elementary aggregate that did not collaborate during the reference month. The elementary aggregates are the most detailed levels for which the indices are calculated. The average annual imputation rate in 2017 was 1%.
Editing: Exceptionally, there is editing of establishments that have not responded and whose evolution is not properly represented by the rest of establishments of their same aggregate.
Encoding: It does not include variables that require subsequent coding. Identification variables were encoded when the sample was extracted for the first time. The activity was re-coded for the microdata with the CNAE change and the continuous registers are coded manually.
Collection tools: Collection is multichannel; The respondent is given the possibility of responding by electronic mail, post, telephone, fax and Internet. Collection is unassisted, except in special cases.
ITI is published approximately 51 days after the reference month, which improves the time periods established by Eurostat. The data are considered as definitive 2 year after the provisional dissemination.
During the last quarter of each year, the INE publishes the availability calendar of short-term statistics, which includes the exact publication dates for the following year.
ITI is published in accordance to such calendar, so TP3=0.
Comparability among EU countries is assured thanks to Council Regulation number 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 on short-term statistics, amended by European Parliament and Council Regulation number 1158/2005 of 6 July 2005. The latter provides these statistics with homogeneity regarding the rest of European Union countries, which disseminate the same information on their respective industrial sectors.
The results by Autonomous Community were published for the first time in base 2010 and their comparability is guaranteed, given the survey has the same design for the entire geographical scope. Therefore, its methodology, design, information collection process and data filtering are the same.
ITI was published in the year 2002 for the first time. Since then, three rebases have been carried out. The first results were published in base 2000, subsequently in 2009 they started to be published in base 2005, as from March 2013 they were published in base 2010 and as from March 2018 data are disseminated in base 2015.
These base changes have entailed the modification of some methodological aspects of the survey, which have meant a break in the series, which has been conveniently treated to offer a linked series from the first publication year of the survey up to now.
In January 2019 the length of the comparable serie is 205.
There is a close relationship between the evolution of the different industry-related indicators (Industrial New Orders Received Indices, Industrial Production Index, Industrial Price Index).
All the data used for calculating ITI is obtained via the same collection, validation and imputation processes, which provides them with absolute coherence.
The burden on the respondent units has been reduced in the last years, since the implementation of a system that provides the respondents with the possibility of responding via the Internet or electronic mail has considerably reduced the time and effort dedicated to completing the questionnaire.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The common revision policy, in consideration of the new available information, is to check on a monthly basis the data of the twelve months prior to the last published month.
Nevertheless, on the occasion of the new base 2015 implementation in 2018 (date in which the first results for base 2015 were published), all months since January 2015 were previously revised, so as to have a homogenous series available.
Any changes in the published data series due to the revision process, are notified in the INE website, both in the main results tables and the data tables included in the Press Releases disseminated every month.
As explained in the section 17.1, revisions take place continually and the same revision policy is applied to data released
nationally and transmitted to Eurostat. In ITI, each month the provisional data of the current year and the previous year are
Major revisions are explained in the methodology and changes in the survey methodology are announced in advance and
disseminated at the website. No benchmarking is carried out.
The regular processes that introduce revisions are regular revisions for original data series, calendar/working day adjusted data
series and seasonal adjusted data series.
The Quality Indicators used in the data revision practice are: MAR (Mean Absolute Revision), RMAR (Relative Mean Absolute
Revision) and MR (Mean Revision).
For the rate of the ITI general index in the last 36 months, being December 2018 the last month, MAR = 0.15; RMAR = 2.7% and MR= 0.063.
For the calendar/working day adjusted data, these indicators, for the same period and the same variable (annual growth rate) are MAR = 3.3; RMAR = 3.2% and MR= 0.064.
ITI (Industrial Turnover Index) is addressed to establishments whose main economic activity is included in Sections B and C of CNAE-2009.
The sources of the framework are the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector and PRODCOM, that are statistical operations that provide infomration about the identification, location, territorial distribution and classification by size and economic activity of companies and establishments.
The size of the ITI sample is of approximately 12,000 establishments.
So as to make the ITI and INORI (Industrial New Orders Received Indices) results comparable with those of the IPI (Industrial Production Index), and this way have an overall view of the economic activity of the industrial sector, the initial ITI and INORI sample was obtained from that of the IPI. Nevertheless, it must be taken into consideration that the population scope of IPI is wider, since it includes companies whose main economic activity is classified within section D of CNAE 2009 (Supply of electric energy, gas, steam and air conditioning).
It shall also be taken into consideration that although the initial sample of ITI is based on that of the IPI, there may have been differences between both for various reasons, e.g., the case of an establishment which stops manufacturing products included in the basket of products selected in IPI (in this case the establishment is delisted from IPI, but not necessarily the same happened in the ITI sample.)
Data collection is carried out monthly.
There are two questionnaire models. The first one requests information on the variables related with turnover and the new orders received, the second one, besides this information also requests information regarding the value of the supply. The second model is addressed to the establishments whose main economic activity is in section C of CNAE -2009 and belong to companies with 50 or more wage earners. It is also addressed to the establishments whose main economic activity belongs to divisions 13, 14, 15, 16 or 31 of CNAE-2009 and belong to companies with 20 or more wage earners. The rest of establishments have to complete a model that does not contain the questions regarding supply.
The respondent companies send their data via the Internet. by electronic mail; by telephone; by fax or post (print questionnaires).
In 2018 more than 80% of respondents used the on-line questionnaire.
In the completion phase of the questionnaire, an inconsistency-detection system is used so that the respondent is informed and required to confirm or modify the provided information.
When this information is recorded by the INE personnel, there is a recording control system that warns about the possible inconsistencies that may occur. For the data in which there are discrepancies during this process, the personnel responsible for information collection get in contact with the respondent so they conform or modify the information provided.
Once all the information is compiled in the Responsible Department, a coverage control of the information is carried out, so as to guarantee completeness of the recorded data, as well as detect duplicates and coverage errors, non-response, etc.
Before starting the process that enables obtaining the indices to be published on this statistical operation, non-response is analysed to impute data in accordance with the establishments that have provided information corresponding to the reference month.
Subsequently, with the information received in the INE collection centres, the data-filtering process begins. The process consists of two phases: in the first phase, microfiltering or microdata filtering is carried out, whereas the second phase consists in an analysis for different aggregation levels or macrofiltering.
Microfiltering consists in checking the validity of the data provided by each establishment, considering the historical series they have provided. The analysis establishes inter-monthly and inter-annual comparisons, therefore the data is validated without re-contact when its evolution is repeated periodically.
The second part of the filtering is carried out once the data is processed all together. Centralised filtering or macrofiltering is carried out with the aggregate information. Unlike microfiltering, in this phase the weightings of each economic activity are part of the calculation, the variation rates for different aggregation levels are taken into account, etc. In the cases in which information from other sources is available, a coherence process is carried out among these sources and the survey results.
Due to the rebasing 2015 the ITI weights were updated. The data used to update the weights were the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector year 2015. These weights were revised and analysed in detail.
To carry out the seasonal adjustment of the ITI series, the INE standard has been followed for the correction of seasonal and calendar effects.
Calendar effect is defined as the impact produced in the time series of a variable, due to the different structure that the months (or quarters) present in the different years (in both length and composition), even if the remaining factors influencing said variable remain constant.
To correct this problem and obtain a series that compares turnover throughout time in a homogenous way, the series is corrected taking into account the following calendar effects: working days, Easter holidays and leap Year. To collect these effects, regARIMA models with four centred intervention variables have been used for calendar effect.
Once calendar effects are eliminated, seasonal effect indices are corrected. Seasonal fluctuations are movements that occur with a similar intensity each month, each quarter or each season of the year, and which are expected to continue occurring.
Seasonally adjusted series, that is, those that are adjusted for seasonal and calendar effects, provide an estimate of what is "new" in a series (change in the trend, the cycle and the irregular component).
The corrected series is published along with the series that is not corrected, so as to complete the juncture analysis.
The English definition of turnover included in section 3.4 is a general definition which is applicable to most part of the statistical operations addressed to units that are dedicated to industrial or services activities.
However, turnover mentioned in the Industrial Turnover Indices (ITI) statistical operation shall be clarified, since the concept of turnover used in ITI does not include, in addition to VAT, other taxes levied on the transaction, sales returns and does not deduct sales rebates.