The statistical use of the Central Business Register (CBR) is a statistical analysis of the economic units, considering the main variables available in the system, once the annual maintenance processes have concluded.
It contains relevant aggregate information regarding the population of active statistical units, type of company and local units, that operate in the national territory, with reference 1 January of each year. The population magnitudes are broken down by Autonomous Communities according to legal status, main economic activity and assigned wage-earner stratum.
Additionally, it is possible to access information on flows detected in the CBR (new enterprises, existing enterprises and closed enterprises) as a consequence of the maintenance processes. The mentioned categories are also classified according to economic sector, legal status and wage-earner stratum.
This statistical operation covers all economic activities of CNAE 09 except agrarian and fishing production, (A), the administrative services of the Autonomous and Local Central Administration (O), the household activities as employers of domestic staff (T) and extraterritorial institutions (U)
Two types of units: Companies and Local Units. Already defined in the previous section
Active companies at the end of the reference year; Companies that have been delisted during the reference year.
Active companies at the end of the reference year
The entire national territory. Also regional and provincial data
Data regarding 1 January of the reference year
This operation was first published in the INE official website in 1999, with reference 01-01-1999.
The implementation of the CNAE 2009 Classification was a relevant methodological change. The first statistical aggregates generated as a consequence of this process were obtained for base year 2007 and were disseminated with reference date 01-01-2008.
Number of enterprises, number of local units
The reference date is the first day of each year for economically active units and the previous year as a whole for the delimitation of units that are delisted from the Register.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2019
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The presentation of results is structured as a set of tabulations divided into three series: Company data, Local unit data and CBR movement data.
The following is an explanation of the list of generated tables.
SERIES 1: COMPANY DATA
1. National level
• Companies by wage-earner stratum and legal status
• Companies by legal status, main economic activity (CNAE 2009 groups) and wage-earner strata.
• Companies by main economic activity (CNAE 2009 Divisions) and age
• Companies by wage-earner stratum and age
2. Autonomous Community level
• Companies by Autonomous Community, main economic activity (CNAE 2009 groups) and wage-earner stratum
3. Provincial level
• Companies by province and legal status
• Companies by province and wage-earner stratum.
NOTE: The province of the company is considered to be that in which the corporate headquarters of the company are located.
SERIES 2: LOCAL UNIT DATA
1. National level
• Premises by wage-earner stratum and legal status.
• Premises by main economic activity (CNAE 2009 groups) and wage-earner stratum.
2. Autonomous Community level
• Premises by Autonomous Community, main economic activity (CNAE 2009 groups) and wage-earner stratum
3. Provincial level
• Premises by province and wage-earner stratum.
• Premises by province and legal status.
• Premises by province, main economic activity (CNAE 2009 divisions) and wage-earner stratum.
SERIES 3: CBR MOVEMENT DATA
• Registrations of companies by legal status, wage-earner stratum and main economic activity (CNAE 2009 divisions)
• Companies remaining in business by legal status, wage-earner stratum and main economic activity (CNAE 2009/CNAE 93 divisions)
• Company delistings by legal status, wage-earner stratum and main economic activity (CNAE 2009 divisions)
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
All published information may be accessed via the section:
INEbase/ Companies/ or directly in the following link:
Microdata dissemination is not applicable for this statistical operation
Through the INE User Information Area users may request specific use of information which is granted after a feasibility study that guarantees confidentiality and data quality. This service may be accessed through the following link: https://www.ine.es/en/prodyser/informacion
Detailed information in:
Sections 11 to 19 are considered the quality report intended for users of this operation.
Additionally and in the management scope of the Business Register for statistical use, there is a Recommendations Manual in the context of the EU and the supra-national Legislation in force. It includes a chapter on Quality policy.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The compilation process of this statistical operation has established mechanisms for the detection and correction of errors. These controls are carried out from a static perspective (internal consistency of data regarding a specific reference period) as well as a dynamic perspective (time analysis of the aggregates). The computer tools used, allow detecting all the possible formal quality errors of the information.
Others factors regarding the management dynamics of the CBR itself, help to strengthen the quality parameters, mainly in terms of international comparability and harmonisation. Specifically, (EC) European Parliament and Council Regulation no. 177/2008 of 20 February 2008, establishes a common framework for the register of companies used for statistical purposes in all Member States.
The quality of the data generated in these statistics is directly linked to the quality of the entry sources that contribute to the maintenance of the CBR.
Nevertheless, CBR management activities systematically incorporate quality improvement programmes, by incorporating the final data of the economic surveys, the performance of specific register surveys or the continuous microvalidation activities focused on the most important economic units.
These statistics are used by a wide range of users that are restricted to the Public Administrations scope (Ministries, Autonomous Communities, Local Administration Entities, Bank of Spain,..) Companies (with particular impact on the market studies sector), individuals or other research or analysis entities ( Universities, Chamber of Commerce, Trade or Professional Associations,..). The availability of structured information on the business network operating in Spain, allows making decisions on public policies in the various areas of jurisdiction.
In specific circumstances, a customised use service responds to more specific needs for information. This request shall have been previously assessed in terms of confidentiality and quality.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The provided results totally comply with the conditions established by the National Statistical Plan regarding this operation. The rate of available compulsory results is 100%.
Overall accuracy is a consequence of the robust management and maintenance model of the CBR, which takes multiple sources which have been previously analysed and compared.
The analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each source enables generating specific rules of decision and hierarchy when determining the activity status of each statistical unit and their main identification, location and classification variables. Additional verifications compared with other sources or specific operations for improvement (detection of duplicates or falsely active units) allow inferring reasonable degrees of reliability.
Not applied, as it is direct use of the CBR.
There may be overcoverage errors due to the inflation that the administrative sources may potentially present. On the contrary, the detection of a new economic unit which starts operating may undergo a lapse of time until it is appropriately registered in the source. Economic units with non-market economic activities and no employment may be under-represented.
The data of this operation are generated and revised during the 20 days following the closing of the CBR update. Usually, in August t+1 this publication is generated with reference year t. As a consequence, the time elapsed from the reference date to the publication is 8 months.
Dissemination of results is carried out in accordance with the availability calendar of structural statistics that the INE compiles and publishes each year.
The territorial coverage elements of the CBR allow guaranteeing the comparability of compiled data at an international and national level, for the considered geographical breakdowns.
Results have annual periodicity and are comparable in time. From the 2018 cycle, the implementation of the new concept of enterprise partially limits the temporal comparison with respect to the previous years.
During the process of change of the CNAE Classification, the CBR incorporated a specific double coding procedure during a provisional time of 2 years. Similar tables may be consulted in CNAE 93 and CNAE 2009 for the results at 1 January 2008 and 1 January 2009. There is currently a time series that is comparable in CNAE 2009 of 8 years for all the variables considered, in terms of analysis as well as classification.
The data present reasonable degrees of coherence with those included in structural economic surveys. In the analysis it shall be considered that the nature of the aggregates is different (direct data from the CBR as compared with estimated data from surveys, as a result of the field incidences and the corresponding elevation procedures)
There are coherence norms between the variables object of use, including significance levels which are compared in the generation of results.
In the 2019 annual Program, the estimate of the necessary budget appropriation to finance this statistical operation and the Directorio Central de Empresas is 371,05 thousand euros. Due to the specific characteristics therein, there is no burden for the respondent units.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
As a general rule, the data is considered final and therefore not subject to revision. In special cases there may be corrections including an explanatory note.
Identical to the data revision policy.
Although the data that serve as a base for this operation are considered final data of the CBR, it is necessary to indicate that the annual maintenance process is executed thanks to the receipt of a very broad set of sources of a different nature (administrative, statistical or private). The Management Unit of the CBR has access to these sources in the format of microdata which is identified individually. They are listed below, according to type:
• Economic Activity Tax Census (State / Comunidad Foral de Navarra)
• Withholdings on Personal Work Income (State / Comunidad Foral de Navarra)
• Value Added Tax, Company Tax and Income Tax
• Intra/Extra-Community Operators
Social Security Sources
• Register of Social Security Contributions with workers
• Register of Active self-employed workers
• Movements of the Mercantile Register
• Directory of economic activities of País Vasco
• Structural and short-term surveys of companies; register surveys
• Inventory of Companies and Public Entities
• Sectoring files of the Spanish economy
All of these sources are received by the INE in different moments of the year, according to their availability. In general, it is necessary to define a specific filtering, improvement and adaptation plan prior to its integration in the CBR. Of course, not all of them play the same role in the maintenance process. Some are key for the detection, remaining or elimination of units, whereas others contribute to the improvement or operation of specific variables.
It is not traditional data collection, but it is based on the maintenance process of the CBR, centred on the access, treatment and integration of several external sources.
Each source that supplies the CBR is submitted to a prior validation and improvement plan. This process is specific to each source. If the initial consistency indicators are not satisfactory, the data is returned to the Managing Entity for their correction. Once all the necessary controls are carried out, a derived statistical subsystem is obtained.
The integration processes of statistical data and comparison with year t-1 are continuously monitored by means of specific analysis tables. When all consistency requirements are fulfilled, the updating processes is concluded and the generation of results for this statistical operation begins.
DIRCE of 2018 generates for the first time enterprises fully adapted to the Regulation 696/93, by the application of pertinent profiling technics.
The aggregates are compiled by automatic procedures with standardised software products and regularly used in the INE (SAS, PCAxis,..)
As it is statistical use of the CBR no specific adjustments are made.