Survey on the Transition from Education/Training to Labour Market Insertion
- 1.1Contact organisation
National Statistics Institute of Spain
- 1.5Contact mail address
Paseo de la Castellana 183 - 28046 Madrid
- 1.1Contact organisation
- 2Metadata update
- 2.1Metadata last certified
- 2.2Metadata last posted
- 2.3Metadata last update
- 2.1Metadata last certified
- 3Statistical presentation
- 3.1Data description
The Educational-Training Transition and Labour Insertion Survey aims to investigate the educational trajectory and the transition of university graduates to the labour market: to obtain data and references on the quality of labour placement, understand the conditions under which the labour market is accessed, the suitability of studies to the work carried out, and the type of contract or mobility. In short, it is a set of indicators that make it possible to understand the situation of these groups and relate them with the degree program completed.
This study has been carried out on those with a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), General Certificate of Education, Vocational Education and Training (VET), Certificate in Higher Education (CHE) and students who left educational system in the GCSE, throughout the national territory. Regarding the temporal scope, graduates in the 2013-2014 academic year were taken as the study group to carry out the survey in 2019.
The variables studied have been classified into seven groups: sociodemographic data, educational trajectory, complementary training, geographic mobility, current employment situation, employment history and household information.
- 3.2Classification system
- Clasificaciones utilizadas
The ETEFIL-2019 uses the National Classification of Education (CNED-2014) to code the field of study corresponding to the degree carried out.
Likewise, the National Classification of Occupations (NCO-11) has been used for the classification of the different jobs performed, and the CNAE 2009 for the classification of the economic activity of the company.
- 3.3Sector coverage
The population under study are graduates in the 2013-14 academic year in General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), General Certificate of Education, Vocational Education and Training (VET), Certificates in Higher Education (CHE) and students who dropped out of the GCSE in the 2013-14 academic year; that is, levels 21, 22, 32, 33, and 51 of the National Classification of Education (CNED-A 2014).
- 3.4Statistical concepts and definitions
- Dropping Out of Compulsory Secondary Education
Student enrolled at the beginning of the academic year in Compulsory Secondary Education (GCSE), who are no longer enrolled the following academic year and who do not obtain the Degree Certificate.
Students who drop out of the GCSE without a degree are included:
. regardless of the academic year at the time of dropping out,
. a student who, in the following year, completes the Initial Professional Qualification Program or Secondary Education for Adults; and may be enrolled in any of these programs prior to completing the course that is abandoned.
. the student who later rejoin GCSE, after not having completed their education in the year after dropping out.
In order to simplify the delimitation of this group and associate it with the final years of GCSE, it is defined as a grouping of the following subgroups:
- 4th year GCSE students who in the final evaluation are not proposed for the Degree Certificate of Secondary Education; and who, in the following academic year, did not repeat the 4th year of GCSE (ordinary regime) or request transfer to another school to continue their studies.
- Students enrolled in the 4th year of GCSE who drop out during the academic year, prior to evaluation, and who do not request transfer to another school to continue the same studies.
- Students enrolled in the 3rd year of GCSE who are 16 or over at the end of the academic year, who in the following year are not enrolled in GCSE and have not requested a transfer to another school to continue the same studies.
- Students enrolled in the 2nd year of GCSE who are 16 or over at the end of the academic year, who in the following year are not enrolled in GCSE and have not requested a transfer to another school to continue the same studies.
- Students enrolled in the 1st year of GCSE who are 16 or over at the end of the academic year, who in the following year are not enrolled in GCSE and have not requested a transfer to another school to continue the same studies.
- Economic activity
Economic activity of the local unit in which the individual performs his or her main professional activity.
- Afiliado a la Seguridad Social
Se considera afiliado a la Seguridad Social a la persona que está dada de alta en la Seguridad Social, bien sea por cuenta ajena con un contrato de trabajo remunerado o por cuenta propia, en el periodo de referencia.
- Wage-earners or freelance workers
Have worked during the reference week for at least one hour in exchange for a salary or wage, in cash or in kind or have had a job but have not not worked due to being temporally absent from work during the reference week. In this case, in order ot regard the person as employed, it is necessary to be closely linked with his or her employment, and for the total period absent to be less than or equal to three months or, where this is greater, for the percentage of the wage received to be 50% or more.
- General Certificate of Education/Baccalaureate
Seeks to provide students with intellectual and human maturity, as well as the knowledge and skills to carry out social functions with responsibility and competence. It likewise makes students elegible for higher-level professional training and university studies. It comprises two academic courses that will normally be taken between the ages of sixteen and eighteen. Three different modalities are contemplated:
. Arts (this modality includes two tracks: Visual arts, Design and Image; and Performing Arts, Music and Dance).
. Sciences and Technology.
. Humanities and Social Sciences.
Students who have completed studies for the Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education may begin studies for the General Certificate of Education/Baccalaureate. Students who successfully complete the General Certificate of Education, in any of its modalities, receive the title of Baccalaureate. This allows them to move on to higher-level professional training and university studies. In the latter case, an admissions test must be passed. The same degrees and the same pedagogical qualifications as those required for compulsory secondary education are required to teach this stage.
- Disability certificate
- Basic vocacional training cycles
Basic Vocational Training cycles are compulsory for educational administrations but voluntary for families and students, and are free of charge. Simultaneous fulfilment of the following conditions is required to take part in these studies:
¿ Be over fifteen years of age, or turn 15 during the current calendar year, and not exceed seventeen years of age when beginning studies or during the current calendar year (above 17 years of age, Basic Vocational Training may be taken as adult education).
¿ Have completed the first cycle of Compulsory Secondary Education or, exceptionally, have completed the second year of Compulsory Secondary Education.
¿ The teaching team has proposed the student's incorporation into a Basic Vocational Training cycle to the parents or legal guardians.
These studies have a modular structure. They include professional modules for the acquisition of lifelong learning skills (Communication and Social Sciences and Applied Sciences), professional modules that guarantee necessary training in professional skills for professional life and job placement, and a professional Work Centre Training (WCT) module. The latter is carried out in-company and has the fundamental objective of completing and polishing the professional skills acquired at the educational centre. The duration of the training cycles is 2,000 hours, equivalent to two full-time academic courses. This can be extended to three academic years in cases in which the cycles are included in projects or dual Vocational Training programs. Students who pass are granted the Basic Professional Title corresponding to the courses they have taken and the official Professional Training title from the educational system. They may also obtain the title of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education, after passing the final evaluation.
- Intermediate vocacional training cycles
The title of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary is required to take part in these studies. Admission is also granted through a test regulated by the educational administrations. These studies have a modular structure, including a professional Work Centre Training (WCT) module carried out in-company, which aims to apply the theoretical knowledge learned in educational centres. Students who pass obtain the title of Technician for the corresponding profession.
- Higher Vocational Training Cycles
A Baccalaureate degree is a pre-requisite, meaning that it is considered post-secondary education. Admission is also granted through a test regulated by the educational administrations. These studies have a modular structure, including a professional Work Centre Training (WCT) module carried out in-company, which aims to apply the theoretical knowledge learned in educational centres. Students who pass obtain the title of Senior Technician for the corresponding profession.
- Curso de formación ocupacional
Se trata de Formación Profesional no reglada, destinada a todas aquellas personas que estan en situación de desempleo y que necesiten adquirir o perfeccionar su nivel de conocimientos en una determinada ocupación, con el fin de facilitar su inserción en el Mercado Laboral y contribuir a la promoción del autoempleo. Estos cursos estan regulados por el Servicio Público de Empleo Estatal (SEPE).
- Dedicado a las labores del hogar (situación autopercibida/autodeclarada)
Personas que declaran que sin ejercer alguna actividad económica, se dedican a cuidar su propio hogar sin contraprestación económica alguna
This is any of the educational programmes leading to the "doctor" qualification.
Age in years refers to the number of birthdays reached by the reference date, in other words, the age last birthday.
- Compulsory Secondary Education (GCSE)
Seeks to provide all students the basic elements of culture, train them to assume their duties and exercise their rights, develop and consolidate study and work habits, and prepare them for more advanced studies and for employment. It completes basic education and covers four academic years, between twelve and sixteen years of age. It is taught by areas of knowledge. The student who, at the end of this stage, achieves the objectives, will receive the title of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education. This makes them elegible to pursue the General Certificate of Education and specific intermediate vocational training. In any case, the student receives an accreditation from the educational centre, which shows the years studied and the grades obtained in the different areas.
- Secondary Education for Adults (SAE)
This is a flexible teaching system, organized into three areas:
. Communication field,
. Social field,
. Scientific-technological field.
Each has two levels and can be completed in two academic courses. These can be taken in whatever order desired, since it is not necessary to take the modules of the different fields simultaneously.
To access these studies, the student be 18 years old or turn 18 during the starting year of the academic year. An initial assessment is carried out to determine what module will be pursued. This assessment takes into account the studies previously carried out, or it is done using a placement test. Once all the modules have been completed and the objectives achieved, the title of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education is granted.
- Permanent employment
A contract or employment relationship must be considered permanent if there are no objective criteria for the termination thereof, even it it is only carried out during certain periods of the year, but with the assurance that it will be repeated every year (discontinuous permanent contracts).
- Temporary employment
In temporary employment, the end of an employment relationship or contract is determined by objective conditions, such as the expiry of a certain term, the performance of a given task, the reincorporation of an employee that had been temporarily replaced, the performance of a probationary or training period, or the substitution of part of the work not performed by partially-retired persons. In the case of a limited-duration work contract, the conditions corresponding to its termination are generally mentioned in the contract.
- Artistic Studies
The set of studies which aims to provide quality artistic training and to guarantee the qualification of future professionals in music, dance and the fine arts, design and preservation of cultural assets. Artistic Studies include:
. Elementary Music and Dance studies.
. Professional Artistic Studies. Professional Music and Dance studies are included, as well as the intermediate and higher degrees in Fine Arts and Design.
. Higher Artistic Studies. Includes higher studies in Music and Dance, Dramatic Arts, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Assets, higher studies in Design, and the higher studies in Fine Arts, including the higher studies in Ceramics and Glassworks. Higher artistic education is structured academically in three levels:
- Higher Degree: Requires possession of a Baccalaureate degree, or for those over 25 years of age, passing the university entrance test. A specific admissions test regulated by the educational administrations in which the applicant demonstrates the knowledge and professional skills necessary to take advantage of these teachings is also required. Those over 16 (for Music and Dance), 18 (for Dramatic Art) and 19 (for Fine Arts and Design and Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Assets) who do not meet the academic requirements will be granted admission after passing a specific test, regulated and organized by the educational administrations, which certifies that the applicant has the knowledge, skills and aptitudes necessary to take advantage of higher education. The duration of these studies is 4 academic years (240 ECTS credits)
- Master's degree
- Sports Education
These studies are organized in Intermediate and Higher Levels, for each type of sport and, where appropriate, specialties. The Intermediate Level corresponds to studies resulting in the title of Sports Technician. Possession of the title of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education or equivalent for academic purposes is required, along with passing a specific test. Higher-level training leads to the title of Superior Sports Technician. Possession of the title of Sports Technician is required for admission, or where appropriate, the title of the corresponding sports specialty, the title of Baccalaureate or its academic equivalent, and in some cases, the passing of a specific type of test. Admission to the Intermediate and Higher levels of study can also be granted without meeting the established academic requirements, provided that the other access requirements and the established age conditions are met and a maturity test is passed.
- Estudiante (situación autopercibida/autodeclarada)
Se considera estudiante a toda persona que declara que su actividad única (o principal) consiste en la adquisición de una instrucción sistemática de cualquier nivel y tipo de estudio, incluyendo como tal la preparación de oposiciones.
- University studies or education
Each of the educational programmes leading to attaining an official qualification. Prior to the entry into force of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), this referred to 1st and 2nd cycle studies (diploma studies, technical engineering or architecture, university studies, engineering and architecture). As of this time, degree studies began to be taught, as well as official Master's studies that provide access to doctoral studies.
- Incapacidad laboral permanente (situación autopercibida/autodeclarada)
Personas que declaran que se encuentran indefinidamente incapacitadas, tanto si han trabajado o no anteriormente e independientemente de si reciben una pensión por incapacidad.
- Jubilado (situación autopercibida/autodeclarada)
Persona que declaran no trabajar y disfrutar de una pensión de jubilación vitalicia o retiro, obtenidos por su actividad económica anterior al cesar en el trabajo a causa de su edad.
Citizenship is defined as the particular legal bond between an individual and his/her State,, acquired by birth or naturalisation, whether by declaration, option, marriage or other means according to the national legislation.
- Nivel de formación alcanzado
El nivel de formación alcanzado por una persona se define como "el máximo nivel que el individuo ha completado" y "se mide a partir del programa de máximo nivel que haya superado, validado, normalmente, por la correspondiente certificación".
- Occupation of the main breadwinner
If the main breadwinner of the household has ever worked, the occupation, profession or trade carried out in his or her last position to a two-digit NCO-2011 (new classification incorporated into the survey as of 2012) is registered.
The occupation is defined as the kind of work carried out, specifying the role performed.
If an individual has had more than one job, the occupation refers to the last job carried out; if he or she has carried out several jobs, the profession refers to the main job, this being regarded as the one indicated by the intreviewee. The following categories apply:
- Directors and managers
- Scientific technicians and professionals and intellectuals
- Technicians; support professionals
- Accountancy, administrative and other office employees
- Catering, personal, protection services and sales wokers
- Skilled agricultural, livestock, forestry and fishing sector workers
- Craftspersons and employees qualified for manufacturing and construction (except installation and machinery operators)
- Installation and machinery operators and assemblers
- Basic occupations
- Other cases (including Military occupations and No data recorded)
- Ocupados (situación autopercibida/autodeclarada)
Los ocupados son todas aquellas personas de 16 años o más que, durante un período de referencia dado (semana de referencia, período actual...) declararon tener un empleo por cuenta ajena, asalariado, o ejercieron una actividad por cuenta propia, trabajadores por cuenta propia.
- Other training programs
These programs are intended to compensate inequalities by promoting equal opportunities, and to provide continuity to the education of students with special educational needs, as well as to other groups with specific needs, providing adapted educational structures that are established and authorized by the educational administrations. These may include professional modules and other appropriate training modules. However, these programs do not lead directly to the granting of an official degree from the education system, although the modules passed may be recognized for the purpose of on-going studies.
- Parados (situación autopercibida/autodeclarada)
Parados son todas aquellas personas de 16 años o más que, durante un período de referencia dado (semana de referencia, período actual...), declararon encontrarse desempleados o buscando un empleo.
- Active population or active persons
The active population comprises employed and unemployed persons during the reference week.
- Inactive population or inactive persons
The economically inactive population comprises all persons 16 years old and older who do not classify as employed, unemployed or population counted separately during the reference week.
- Initial Professional Qualification Programs
Aimed at students over the age of sixteen who have not obtained the title of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education; exceptionally and with the agreement of students and parents or guardians, said age may be reduced to fifteen years. Their objective is for all students to achieve professional skills of a level one qualification according to the structure of the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications. They include three types of modules: specific modules referring to skill units corresponding to level one of the aforementioned catalogue; general training modules that expand basic skills and promote a transition to the working world; and voluntary modules that lead to the title of Graduate in Compulsory Secondary Education, which can be taken simultaneously with the previous modules or once they have been passed. Students who pass the compulsory modules obtain an academic certification validating the skills acquired.
- Branches of knowledge
These are the areas of knowledge in which the official studies are grouped: social and legal sciences, technical sciences, humanities, experimental sciences and health sciences.
Sex refers to the biological sex of the person. According to the WHO, "sex" refers to biological and physiological features defining to men and women, whereas "gender" refers to the roles, behaviour, activities and attributes constructed socially that a specific culture regards as appropriate for men and women. In accordance with this description, the WHO regards "man" and "woman" as sex categories, whereas "male" and "female" are gender categories.
- Situación principal autopercibida/autodeclarada en relación con la actividad económica.
Se refiere a la situación principal en que se clasificaría cada persona según la propia percepción de su relación con la actividad económica: ocupado, parado, jubilado, estudiante, incapacitado para trabajar, dedicado a las labores del hogar u otras situaciones.
- Professional Status
The definition is based on the ILO resolution regarding the International Classification of the Employment Situation (15th CISE, 1993). The two essential dimensions for the concept of professional situation are economic risk and authority.
The basic distinction is the one that exists between wage earners and freelance workers. Wage earners are all workers whose type of work is defined as paid employment: work whereby the holders have implicit or explicit employment contracts (verbal or in writing), for which they receive basic payment that does not depend directly on the income of the unit for which they work (this unit may be a corporation, a non-profit organisation, a government unit or a household). Some or all instruments, capital goods, information systems and/or premises used by the holders belong to third parties, and the holders may work under the direct supervision of or in accordance with the strict directives established by the owner or persons employed by the latter. (Persons with ¿paid employment¿ are usually paid with salaries or wages, but may also be paid by means of commissions on sales, efficiency payments, premiums or payments in kind such as food, lodgings or training).
Freelance work is that employment whereby payment depends directly on profits (or on the potential to make profit) deriving from goods and services produced (in these jobs it is regarded that self-consumtion forms part of profits). Freelance workers make operational decisions that affect the company, or delegate those decisions, but retain responsibility for the well-being of the company. (In this context, the company includes the operations of a single person.)
Wage earners with a determined duration job/contract are those employees whose main work will end after a pre-termined period of time has elapsed, or after a period of time which is unknown from the outset, but defined by means of objective criteria, such as the completion of a task or the end of the period of absence of the worker who is being temporarily replaced.
- Activity rate
The activity rate is defined as the quotient between the total number of active persons and the population aged 16 years old and over.
- Employment rate
This is the quotient between the total number of employed persons and the population aged 16 years and over.
- Unemployment rate
The unemployment rate is the quotient between the number of unemployed persons and the number of active persons. Calculated for both sexes and for each sex separately.
- Type of Educational Centre
The centres can be public or private depending on whether they depend on a public body, regardless of the origin of their economic resources.Public centres are those that are publicly owned, either by the General Administration (Ministry of Education or any other Ministry), Autonomous (Regional Ministries of Education or other Regional Ministries of the Autonomous Communities), Local (Town Halls, Provincial Councils ...), or any other public entity.
Private centers are those owned by a private institution, entity or person. All foreign centres are considered private, regardless of their owner.
- Types of contract or employment relationship
Contracts or employment relationships may be permanent or temporary.
- Type of working day
The typical weekly working day at work may be full time or part time.
The distinction is based on the interviewee's opinion, though it must be taken into account that part-time work can never exceed 35 hours weekly, and full-time work cannot be under to 30 hours weekly, and full-time work must be equal to or over 30 regular hours each week.
- Freelance workers
Have worked during the reference week for at least one hour in exchange for personal gain or family earnings or have had a job but not working due to being temporarily absent from it during the reference week due to illness, an accident, holidays, public holidays, bad weather or other reasons involving there continuing to exist a strong link between the person and his or her company.
Family assistance is included in this category.
- Dropping Out of Compulsory Secondary Education
- 3.5Statistical unit
The basic statistical units are Graduates in the 2013-14 academic year with a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), Baccalaureate, Intermediate Vocational Training (VET), Certificate in Higher Education (CHE) and students who dropped out of the educational system during the GCSE in the 2013-14 academic year.
- 3.6Statistical population
The population scope of this statistic consists of all Graduates from an educational centre in Spain in the 2013-14 academic year with a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), Baccalaureate, Intermediate Vocational Training (VET), Certificate of Higher Education (CHE) and students who dropped out of the educational system while pursuing the GCSE in the 2013-14 academic year.
- 3.7Reference area
The territorial scope is formed by all non-university educational centres in the national territory.
- 3.8Time coverage
The temporal scope is the year 2019.
- 3.9Base period
This is the second edition of this survey, the base period is the year 2005.
- 4Unit of measure
- 4.1Unit of measure
The units of measurement are the graduates in the 2013-14 academic year in the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), Baccalaureate, Intermediate Vocational Training (VET), Certificate of Higher Education (CHE) and students left the education system while comleting GCSE in the 2013-14 academic year.
Relative figures are expressed in%.
The unit of measurement of the table of the lower limits of the quintiles of the contribution bases for third parties is the euro.
- 5Reference period
- 5.1Reference period
The time period to which the data refers varies according to the nature of the variables to be investigated. The reference period is the time of the interview (the collection period was from September 2019 to January 2020), or from the time of completion of education in the year 2014 to the time of the interview (for variables of educational trajectory and employment placement).
Data referring to the period: ETEFIL-2019
- 6Institutional mandate
- 6.1Legal acts and other agreements
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
This Statistical Operation has been included in the National Statistical Plan 2017-2020 complying with one of the recommendations made by the High Council on Statistics on national statistical needs in the education sector.
Various sources of administrative information have been used to carry out this statistical operation on the basis of the following agreements:
- Cooperation agreement between the SS and the INE in statistical matters for the use of the file of Affiliations and Bases of Contribution of the General Treasury of the Social Security
- Cooperation agreement between the INE- IMSERSO- CERMI- MSSSI- ONCE Foundation for the use of the State Base of Persons with Disabilities (BEPD).
- 6.2Data sharing
The exchanges of information needed to elaborate statistics between the INE and the rest of the State statistical offices (Ministerial Departments, independent bodies and administrative bodies depending on the State General Administration), or between these offices and the Autonomic statistical offices, are regulated in the LFEP (Law of the Public Statistic Function). This law also regulates the mechanisms of statistical coordination, and concludes cooperation agreements between the different offices when necessary.
Data from administrative records have been used in this statistical operation. The Survey Framework has been provided by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and has been prepared in collaboration with the Autonomous Communities within the Statistical Commission of the Education Sector Conference, based on the basic information of the Statistics on Vocational Training Students, Statistics on Non-university Education, the State Registry of Titles and the Information Systems of the Educational Administrations. The other sources of administrative information used in this statistical operation are: the Affiliations and Contribution Bases files (Social Security), the Register of Inhabitants and the Register of Spaniards Residents Abroad - PERE (INE), the files of Contracts and Occupational Training of the State Public Employment Service (SPES) and the State Database of People with Disabilities (SDPD)
- 7.1Confidentiality - policy
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
- 7.2Confidentiality - data treatment
INE provides information on the protection of confidentiality at all stages of the statistical process: INE questionnaires for the operations in the national statistical plan include a legal clause protecting data under statistical confidentiality. Notices prior to data collection announcing a statistical operation notify respondents that data are subject to statistical confidentiality at all stages. For data processing, INE employees have available the INE data protection handbook, which specifies the steps that should be taken at each stage of processing to ensure reporting units' individual data are protected. The microdata files provided to users are anonymised.In the process of performing the statistical operation the safeguarding of confidentiality is a priority issue and something to take into account in each and every phase of the statistical process, especially in the dissemination, where individual information must have a special protection to avoid disclosure without anonymising.
- 8Release policy
- 8.1Release calendar
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
- 8.2Release calendar access
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
- 8.3User access
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
- 9Frequency of dissemination
- 9.1Frequency of dissemination
Educational-Training Transition and Labour Insertion Survey (ETTLIS) carried out by the INE; the first was in 2005.
Starting in 2019, the survey period will be four years.
- 10Accessibility and clarity
- 10.1News release
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
A press release was issued when the data was released in November 2020. It can be consulted at
The information disseminated is the following:
Absolute and relative figures, for graduates in GCSE, Baccalaureate (General Certificate of Education), Vocational Education and Training, Certificates in Higher Education and abandonment of GCSE:
- Characteristics of the graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year
- Place of residence in 2019 of the graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year
- Educational-training transition of the graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year
- Work situation in 2019 of the graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year
- Graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year who were working in 2019
- Graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year who were unemployed in 2019
- Graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year who were inactive in 2019
- Graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year who have had a paid job since they finished their studies in 2014. First job after finishing school
- Graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year who have had a paid job since they finished their studies in 2014
- Graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year who had a paid job during their studies in 2014
- Graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year who have not had a paid job since they finished their degree
- Other training for graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year
- Mobility of graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year within and outside the Spanish territory
- Affiliation to Social Security and contribution bases for graduates of the 2013-2014 academic year
- 10.3On-line database
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The results of this statistical operation can be consulted in the "Education" section within "Society" in INEbase at the following link:
- 10.4Micro-data access
A lot of statistical operations disseminate public domain anonymized files, available free of charge for downloading in the INE website Microdata Section
The anonymized microdata file of ETEFIL 2019 is available on the INE website:
In order to guarantee confidentiality, certain variables have been eliminated (name and surname,... in addition to all the variables that contained a literal).
Interested users may request, through the INE Dissemination Area, any specific consultation or use of information as it is carried out, preserving in all cases the confidentiality of the data.
- 10.6Documentation on methodology
A detailed description is available at:
- 10.7Quality documentation
The INE carries out two specific analyses to assess the quality of ETTLIS data. First, sampling errors are obtained and published together with the tabulation of results. And secondly, an analysis of non-response is performed and published on the website. Both results can be found on the ETTLIS results dissemination page:
Furthermore, the following sections of this methodological report (items 10.7 to 17.2) constitute the user-oriented global quality report for this operation.
- 11Quality management
- 11.1Quality assurance
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The Educational-Training Transition and Labour Insertion Survey has established a series of mechanisms that contribute to guaranteeing the quality of the process and the results. Among them are the following:
- Data collection through CAWI and CATI applications with implementation of errors and warnings of incompatibility or incongruence between the survey responses in order to perform a first field cleaning at the time of data collection.
- Comprehensive testing of electronic questionnaires (CAWI and CATI) in order to verify the controls of inconsistencies in the responses.
- Specific training for interviewers with the participation and advice of experts from the National Statistics Institute.
- Periodic inspection of field work.
- Comprehensive review of the coding of questions that require it (current occupation and first job).
- Control of errors and warnings after the collection in order to corroborate the correct functioning of the applications and avoid systemic errors in the collection.
- Use of administrative records (Affiliations and Contribution Bases of the Social Security General Treasury; Contracts and Vocational Training Applicants of the Public State Employment Service) to assist in coding, validating and completing the information provided by the reporting units.
- 11.2Quality assessment
According to the measures implemented in the results collection and purification process described in the previous section, the strong points of the survey are:
- the absence of errors and inconsistencies between the answers to the questionnaire, thanks to the CAWI-CATI questionnaires and an initial purification in the field.
- Acceptable level of responses provided by proxy (6.4% of the total for GCSE graduates, 3.7% for Baccalaureate graduates, 2.6% for Vocational Education and Training, 1.9% for Certificates in Higher Education and 5.8% for those who left GCSE).
- Adequate classification according to the variables of occupation in the first job and in the current job due to the exhaustive purification process.
- results calibrated by sex, type of centre, modality, training cycle and Autonomous Community of study.
- Use of administrative sources to reduce the burden of questions to the informant and as an aid in purification. Affiliations and Bases of Contribution of the General Treasury of the Social Security; Contracts and Vocational Training Applicants of the Public State Employment Service (SPES).
- Use of the Register of Spaniards Resident Abroad (PERE) to obtain the address of respondents resident outside Spain.
- Cross-checking of the sample with the State Database of Persons with Disabilities (SDPD) to obtain estimates for this group.
- 12.1User needs
Among the users of the survey are:
- Ministry of Education and Professional Training.
- Ministry of Universities.
- Ministry of Labour, Migration and Social Security.
- Territorial Administrations.
- Researchers and the academic world.
- Press and specialized media.
- 12.2User satisfaction
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
User satisfaction surveys collect information for groups of statistics that can be seen on the INE website, in the Quality section-->Quality management-->Quality assessment and monitoring systems-->User surveys.
The survey is not regulated by European directive. Although there is no European harmonisation in this statistical field, with this new operation, Spain joins other countries that analyse the educational transition and job placement process for graduates in non-university education.
The requirements are marked by the needs of the primary users. The information required by the National Statistical Plan is thus fully collected.
Ultimately, the survey provides all required information, meaning that the "rate of mandatory statistical results available" will be R1=100%.
- 13Accuracy and reliability
- 13.1Overall accuracy
The sample design tries to minimise sampling errors and the different processes of the survey are aimed at eliminating or reducing, as far as possible, its errors, both in the collection phase (response rate and cleaning control) and in the subsequent editing and imputation phases.
The estimators used are post-stratified estimators. On the other hand, reweighting techniques (calibrated) have been applied according to sex, type of centre, modality, training cycle and Autonomous Community of study, which allows the results of the deviations that occur due to the lack of response to be adjusted.
Finally, the exhaustive and centralized refinement of the coding of variables, such as occupation, has made it possible to ensure the homogeneous and controlled processing of the subsequent sample classifications, avoiding bias in the results.
- 13.2Sampling error
Sampling errors are calculated for the current employment situation at different levels of disaggregation. Sampling errors are also calculated on the subsequent educational trajectories of the groups of graduates in GCSE, General Certificate of Education, and those who dropped out of GCSE. The results can be found in the tabulation of the survey at the following link:
- 13.3Non-sampling error
During the entire statistical process, there is a control of non-sampling errors.
The main source of non-sampling errors is due to the lack of response from respondents. For the ETTLIS, the two main response indicators are:
Proportion of effective sample (People surveyed/Theoretical sample)=74.6% for GCSE, 76.4% for Baccalaureate, 69.5% for Vocational Education and Training, 70.7% for Certificates in Higher Education and 35, 3% for Abandonment of GCSE.
Response rate (People surveyed/People surveyable)=97.3% for GCSE, 98.6% for Baccalaureate, 97.8% for Vocational Education and Training, 98.2% for Certificates in Higher Education and 93.7 % for Abandonment of GCSE.
The non-response rate per unit:
- A4 (GCSE)=25.6%.
- A4 (Baccalaureate)=23.6%.
- A4 (VET)=29.6%.
- A4 (CHE)=28.2%.
- A4 (Abandonment of GCSE)=59.9%.
A full non-response analysis document is provided which can be found at the following link:
- 14Timeliness and punctuality
The data reference period is from September 2019 to January 2020.
The publication of the definitive data takes place 10 months after the end of the reference period. TP2 = 10
The dissemination of data is carried out in accordance with the schedule of availability of the structural statistics prepared and published annually by the INE.
- 15Coherence and Comparability
- 15.1Comparability - geographical
The availability of a methodology, a design and a common process of collection, filtering, editing and updating in all its geographical area, guarantees the comparability of the results between the different Autonomous Communities.
- 15.2Comparability - over time
This is the second survey on educational-training transition and job placement. The first edition was carried out in 2005, with the graduates of the 2000-01 academic year.
- 15.3Coherence - cross domain
The use of the National Classification of Education (NCED), the National Classification of Occupations (NCO) and the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE), allows comparability with other Statistical Operations that use these same classifications.
- 15.4Coherence - internal
The coherence between the variables is contrasted from the moment of data capture through the computer application (control of errors and warnings) and is reviewed in the cleaning process in the office. This process has made it possible to provide the variables collected in the questionnaire.
- 16Cost and burden
- 16.1Cost and burden
Since the survey was aimed at graduates from the 2013-2014 academic year, and in order to reduce costs and optimize data collection, internet information collection (CAWI) was selected. This method gives the respondent the possibility of completing the survey at the desired time, in addition to significantly reducing the cost of collection.Reducing the burden on respondents was one of the objectives set out in the working group in charge of preparing the questionnaire, in which the INE worked closely together. In order to achieve this, administrative records have been used.
The estimated budget appropriation necessary to finance this statistic foreseen in the 2020 Annual Programme is 474.45 thousand euros.
- 17Data revision
- 17.1Data revision - policy
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
Final data is published and is not subject to revision. No preview was published in ETTLIS-2019.
- 17.2Data revision - practice
The published data are final, not subject to revision.
- 18Statistical processing
- 18.1Source data
According to the survey objectives and the data collection method, the type of sampling used is a simple stratified random sampling.
The Survey Framework was the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), General Certificate of Education, Vocational Education and Training (VET), Certificates in Higher Education (CHE) and students who dropped out of the GCSE in the 2013-14 academic year. This Framework has been provided by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and has been prepared in collaboration with the Autonomous Communities within the Statistical Commission of the Education Sector Conference based on the basic information of the Statistics on Vocational Training Students, of the Statistics of the Non-university Education, the State Registry of Degree Titles and the Information Systems of the Educational Administrations.
For analysis of the size of the global sample, the distribution of the total number of graduates by type of centre and Autonomous Community has been used. For graduates in Intermediate and Upper-level Vocational Education and Training, the distribution of total graduates by the training cycle in which they graduated has also been provided.
To achieve the survey objectives, the size of the theoretical sample was set at approximately 8,500 graduates from GCSE and 7,000 from Baccalaureate (General Certificate of Education), 8,000 from Vocational Education and Training, 11,000 from Certificates in Higher Education and 5,000 from GCSE dropouts.
To obtain the addresses of the graduates selected in the sample, we used -as in all household surveys- the addresses found in the Municipal Register. Taking into account that the graduates could be residing abroad, those who were not located in Municipal Register were searched for in the Registry of Spaniards Residing Abroad (PERE).
In order to reduce the burden on informants, administrative records such as the Affiliations and Contribution Bases files (Social Security) and the State Database of People with Disabilities (SDPD) were used.
Administrative records such as the Contracts and Occupational Training files of the State Public Employment Service (SPES) and the Affiliations and Contribution Bases files (Social Security) have also been used as an aid in purification.
- 18.2Frequency of data collection
The first time the Educational-Training Transition and Labour Insertion Survey (ETTLIS) was carried out was in 2005.
From that edition of the survey (2019) onwards, the frequency of data collection will be every four years.
- 18.3Data collection
The questionnaire has been elaborated by a working group (in which the INE participated).
The interviews are carried out using a combined system of CAWI (computer-assisted web interview) and CATI (computer-assisted telephone interview). For the first phase (CAWI), a letter is sent with the necessary passwords to access the questionnaire via Internet. Prior to the CATI interview, the selected person is sent an informative letter with a 900 number in which additional information can be requested or an appointment can be made with the interviewer. During the entire collection period, the possibility of completing this form through CAWI remains open if the person so wishes.
Data collection has been carried out from September 2019 to January 2020.
- 18.4Data validation
The monitoring process of the information to guarantee its quality is carried out in two phases:
1/ During the course of the interview: both the computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) and the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) allow the incorporation into the electronic questionnaire of validation rules for errors and inconsistencies that must be cleaned at the very moment of the interview. Likewise, it allows to incorporate warnings about slight inconsistencies to be directly compared with the respondent.
2/ Office work: Once the data has been received, a cleaning application allows an exhaustive control of the data, analysing errors, serious inconsistencies, slight inconsistencies, extreme values, monitoring of marginal distributions, crossing tables, etc.
In a complementary way, crosses are programmed or subsets of data are extracted to analyse specific variables.
The serious errors or invalid values detected in the first weeks of the information collection period through the CAWI channel made it possible to improve the electronic questionnaire of the CATI collection channel.
Errors that may be due to misinterpretation of questions were transmitted to the interviewers so that they could take this into account during the course of their work.>
- 18.5Data compilation
Among the processes applied to the initial data until suitable aggregate data may be obtained, are:
1/Data processing. During the cleaning process, it is carried out the detection and cleaning of errors and inconsistencies in the main variables. According to the characteristics of each type of error, automatic imputation procedures are used, in some cases using information provided by administrative records.2/ Adjustment of non-response and calibration
3/ Calculation and revision of the elevation factors.
No temporary adjustments are made.
- 18.5Data compilation
- Clasificaciones utilizadas
- 3.1Data description