Cifras INE

Sustainable Development Goals (2/17)

2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

In 2017 the INE launched a new statistical operation "Indicators of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development", which was included in the National Statistical Plan in 2018, which is prepared in collaboration with the statistical services of the ministries https://www.ine.es/dyngs/ODS/en/index.htm.

Through Goal 2, countries commit to "End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture". This objective is broken down into eight goals related to the following: 1) end hunger and ensure access to healthy and sufficient food; 2) end all forms of malnutrition; 3) double agricultural productivity and the incomes of small-scale food producers; 4) ensure the sustainability of food production systems; 5) maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their wild species; 6) increase investments to improve agricultural production capacity; 7) correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets; and 8) take measures for well-functioning markets for food commodities and their derivatives.

To monitor Goal 2, 14 indicators have been defined in the United Nations global framework. The INE 2030 Agenda Indicators platform contains 16 sub-indicators corresponding to eight global indicators. Two other indicators are considered "not relevant" because their value is close to zero. Therefore, the coverage rate is 71%.

Subir Organic and sustainable agriculture in the EU and in Spain

Proportion of agricultural area under organic farming

The sub-indicator Proportion of agricultural area under organic farming is defined as the proportion of used agricultural area (UAA) occupied by organic farming (existing organic farming areas and areas undergoing conversion). Organic production is an overall system of agricultural management and food production that combines best environmental practices, a high level of biodiversity, the preservation of natural resources, the application of high animal welfare standards and production in accordance with the preferences of certain consumers for products obtained from natural substances and processes.

In Spain, in 2020, the proportion of the agricultural area in which organic farming is practised was 9.98%, while the EU-27 average was 9.08%.

The European countries with the highest percentage were Austria (25.69%), Estonia (22.41%) and Sweden (20.31%). On the other hand, the countries with the lowest percentage were Malta (0.62%), Ireland (1.66%) and Bulgaria (2.30%).

In Spain, this indicator has been growing continuously since 2015 (8.24%).


 Did you know that... by 2021, 2.7% of local varieties of plant genetic resources were considered to be at risk of extinction?

Agricultural productivity

The sub-indicators Production of small-scale producers per labour unit and Average income of small-scale producers is obtained from the National Accounting Network (RECAN). RECAN is a tool for assessing farm income and the impact of agricultural policy on farms. It is governed by an EU Regulation, so it assumes the same accounting principles in all EU countries. small-scale producers are those in the 40% of farms with the smallest utilised agricultural area and in the 40% of farms with the lowest annual income.

The production per work unit of small-scale producers went from 38,563.13 (constant 2015 dollars) in 2015 to 42,746.48 constant 2015 dollars in 2019. This meant a growth of 11% in the period 2015-2019.

The average income of small-scale producers in 2015 was 19,688.57 constant 2015 dollars, while in 2019 it was 22,540.62. This signified a growth of 14.5%.

Foto huerto

Subir Public spending on agriculture

Sub-indicator 2.a.1.1 Agricultural Orientation Index (AOI) is defined as the share of Agriculture in public expenditure (2.a.1.3) divided by the value added of Agriculture as a percentage of GDP (2.a.1.2.), where Agriculture is defined as the sectors of agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting.

The share of public expenditure on agriculture is calculated according to the Government Finance Statistics (GFS) and the Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG), and the share of value added of Agriculture in GDP is calculated according to the System of National Accounts.

The Value Added of Agriculture as a percentage of GDP stood at 2.61% in Spain in 2021. It has a considerable territorial dispersion, from 0.07% in the Community of Madrid to 8.46% in Castilla - La Mancha, which informs us regarding the distinct importance of this economic sector.

This territorial dispersion is similar in the rest of the years for which data is available.

For its part, the percentage of Agriculture in public spending in Spain in 2021 was 0.84%, while in 2015 it was 0.96%.

Thus, the agricultural orientation index in Spain was 32.18% in 2021, compared to 35.16% in 2015.


Subir Food prices

Anomalies in food prices

The sub-indicators 2.c.1.1. Food Price Index and 2.c.1.2. Bread and Cereals Price Index are proxy indicators of food price anomalies.

The national CPI for the Food subgroup in December 2022 was 119.41 while it was 103.00 in December of the previous year.

In December 2022, Extremadura (122.45), Castilla y León (120.78) and Castilla - La Mancha (120.57) were the autonomous communities with the highest CPI values (Food). On the other hand, Cataluña (116.94), La Rioja (117.70) and Illes Balears (117.80) registered the lowest values.

In December 2022, the national CPI for the Bread and Cereals class was 123.62 while a year earlier it stood at 103.41.


Subir Measuring progress on Goal 2

Progress in Spain on the SDG2 sub-indicators is presented, distinguishing between short-term progress (latest year available compared to the previous year) and medium-term progress (since 2015). In both cases the compound annual growth rate has been used.

Of the 16 available sub-indicators, in the medium term (since the base year or 2015), six show favourable progress, one shows slight progress and nine show a decline.

The progress of the “non-relevant” indicators has not been evaluated.

Subindicator Unit Last year
Last year’s value
Medium-term progress
  Short term progress (last two years) Proportion of children aged 2 to 4 years with obesity, overweight or underweight Percentage 2017 54.97 -0.3% n.d Production of small-scale producers per labour unit Constant 2015 dollars 2019 42,746.48 2.6% 5.8% Average income of small-scale food producers Constant 2015 dollars 2019 22,540.62 3.4% 17.4% Proportion of agricultural surface area where ecological agriculture is carried out Percentage 2021 10.79 6.7% 8.1% Harmonised risk indicator for pesticide Percentage 2020 88 -3.8% -3.3% Total ammonia emissions Kilotonnes 2020 467.54 1.5% 3.1% Ammonia emissions from agriculture Kilotonnes 2020 260.25 1.4% 4.7% Ammonia emissions from livestock Kilotonnes 2020 207.29 1.6% 1.1% Proportion of local varieties of plant genetic resources being at risk of extinction Percentage 2021 2.7 8.0% 0.0%
2.a.1.1. Agriculture orientation index for government expenditures Percentage 2021 32.18 -1.5% 9.9%
2.a.1.2. Agriculture value added share of GDP (%) Millions of euros 2021 2.61 -0.7% -9.1%
2.a.1.3. Agriculture share of Government Expenditure (%) Percentage 2021 0.84 -2.2% 0.0%
2.a.2.1. Total gross official flows (ODA plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector Millions of euros 2020 61.59 1.2% 12.0%
2.a.2.2. Total net official flows (ODA plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector Millions of euros 2020 61.59 11.9% 12.0%
2.c.1.1. Food Price Index Index 2022 119.41 3.8% 15.9%
2.c.1.2. Bread and Cereals Price Index Index 2022 123.62 3.6% 19.5%


For indicators with positive normative direction (increases are desirable) we have: growth rates greater than or equal to 0.5% are considered progress (), rates in the range [0%, 0.5%) slight progress (), rates in [-0.5%, 0) slight decline () and for rates less than -0.5% decline (). For indicators with a negative normative direction, the categories are reversed. For indicators that do not evolve, use .

© INE 2023  www.ine.es   Aviso Legal  Avda. Manoteras, 52 - 28050 - Madrid - España
NIPO 096-20-009-8  ISSN 2255-162X Catálogo de publicaciones de la Administración General del Estado: http://publicacionesoficiales.boe.es    Fotografías: Fotolia.com